Wednesday, February 16, 2011

What is "Milad shareef"

What is "Milad shareef"

The explanations by the two Shining scholars
                    Sayyid Muhammad Alavi Maliki, Makka
             and Dr. `Isa al-Mani` al-Humayri, Department of Awqaaf, Dubai
For Malayalam versions see the attachments....

Which clears all the misconceptions created by some modern people in the name of Islam.
a must read!!!  May Allah Increase our love towards his beloved Rasool Sallallahu alaihiwasallam...

English version:-

Should we celebrate Mawlid
(The Prophet's (s) birthday)?
Dr. `Isa al-Mani` al-Humayri, Department of Awqaaf, Dubai
Office of Religious Endowments and Islamic Affairs, Dubai
Administration of Ifta' and Research

We find nowadays publications filled with lies and deception which mislead many Muslims into thinking negatively about the honorable Mawlid of the Prophet. These publications claim that to celebrate the Mawlid is an act of innovation that goes against Islam. This is far from the truth, and it is therefore necessary for those who can speak clearly to help clarify and reverse the doubts surrounding this most blessed day. It is with this humble intention that I present the following proofs in support of celebrating our beloved Prophet's birthday.
The Prophet said, "He who innovates something in this matter of ours that is not of it will have it rejected." He also said, "Beware of innovations, for every innovation (kul bida`) is misguidance."
Those opposed to Mawlid cite this saying and hold that the word every (kul) is a term of generalization, including all types of innovations, with no exception, and that therefore, celebrating Mawlid is misguidance. By daring to say that, they accuse the scholars of Islam of innovation. At the top of the list of those they have accused, then, is our Master `Umar (r). Those in opposition to Mawlid quickly reply to this, "But we did not mean the Companions of the Prophet Muhammad."
It follows, then, that the meaning of every (kul) cannot be taken in its general sense. Therefore, although the Prophet may not have said to celebrate his blessed birthday, it is nonetheless not innovation to do so. For, as the following examples show, there were many actions and practices instituted by his close followers after his time that are not deemed innovation.
Compiling the Qu'ran.
(From a Prophetic saying related by Zaid Ibn Thabit.(r)) "The Prophet died and the Qu'ran had not been compiled anywhere. `Umar (r) suggested to Abu Bakr (r) to compile the Qu'ran in one book. When a large number of Companions were killed in the battle of Yamama, Abu Bakr wondered, "How could we do something that the Prophet did not do?' `Umar said, "By Allah, it is good.' `Umar persisted in asking Abu Bakr until Allah expanded his chest for it (Allah made him agree and accept these suggestions) and he sent for Zaid Ibn Thabit and assigned him to compile the Qu'ran." Zaid said, "By Allah if they had asked me to move a mountain, it would not have been more difficult than to compile the Qur'an." He also said, "How could you do something that the Prophet did not do?" Abu Bakr said, "It is good, and `Umar kept coming back to me until Allah expanded my chest for the matter." The saying is narrated in Sahih Al Bukhari.
The Maqam of Ibrahim (as) in relation to the Ka'ba.
(Al Bayhaqi narrated with a strong chain of narrators from Aisha.) "The Maqam during the time of the Prophet and Abu Bakr was attached to the House, then `Umar moved it back." Al Hafiz Ibn Hajar said in Al Fath, "The Companions did not oppose `Umar, neither did those who came after them, thus it became unanimous agreement." He was the first to build the enclosure (maqsura) on it, which still exists today.
Adding the first call to prayer on Friday.
(From Sahih Al Bukhari, from Al Sa'ib bin Yazid.) "During the time of the Prophet (s), Abu Bakr (r) and `Umar (r), the call to Friday prayer used to occur when the Imam sat on the pulpit. When it was Othman's (r) time, he added the third call (considered third in relation to the first adhan and the iqama. But it is named first because it proceeds the call to the Friday prayer.)"
Salutations on the Prophet composed and taught by our Master `Ali (r).
The salutations have been mentioned by Sa'id bin Mansoor and Ibn Jareer in Tahzeeb al Aathar, and by Ibn Abi Assim and Ya'qoob bin Shaiba in Akhbar `Ali and by Al Tabarani and others from Salamah Al Kindi.
The addition to the tashahhud by Ibn Mas'ud.
After "wa rahmatullahi wa barakatu," and the Mercy of Allah and Blessings, he used to say, "assalamu `alayna min Rabbina," peace upon us from our Lord. Narrated by Al Tabarani in Al Kabir, and the narrators are those of the sound transmitters, as it has been mentioned in Majma' Al Zawa'id.
The addition to the tashahhud by Abdullah Ibn `Umar.
He added the basmalah at the beginning of the tashahhud. He also added to the talbia, "labbaika wa sa'daika wal khayru bi yadayka wal raghba'u ilayika wal `amalu" This is mentioned in Bukhari, Muslim, et al.
These are some of the developments instituted by the Prophet's Companions, the scholars, and the honorable members of his nation, which did not exist during the time of the Prophet, and which they deemed good. Are they, then, misguided and guilty of bad innovation?
As for the claim that there is no such thing in religion as good innovation, here are some sayings of the brilliant scholars of Islam belying this claim.
Imam Nawawi said in Sahih Muslim (6-21)
"The Prophet's saying every innovation is a general-particular and it is a reference to most innovations. The linguists say, "Innovation is any act done without a previous pattern, and it is of five different kinds.'" Imam Nawawi also said in Tahzeeb al Asma' wal Sifaat, "Innovation in religious law is to originate anything which did not exist during the time of the Prophet, and it is divided into good and bad." He also said, "Al-muhdathat (pl. for muhdatha) is to originate something that has no roots in religious law. In the tradition of religious law it is called innovation, and if it has an origin within the religious law, then it is not innovation. Innovation in religious law is disagreeable, unlike in the language where everything that has been originated without a previous pattern is called innovation regardless of whether it is good or bad."
Shaykh Ibn Hajar Al Asqalani, the commentator on Al Bukhari, said,
"Anything that did not exist during the Prophet's time is called innovation, but some are good while others are not."
Abu Na'eem, narrated from Ibrahim Al Junaid, said, "I heardAsh-Shafi'i saying,
"Innovation is of two types; praiseworthy innovation and blameworthy innovation, and anything that disagrees with the Sunnah is blameworthy.'"
Imam Albayhaqi narrated in Manaqib Ash-Shafi'i that Ash-Shafi'i  said,
"Innovations are of two types: that which contradicts the Qu'ran, the Sunnah, or unanimous agreement of the Muslims is a innovation of deception, while a good innovation does not contradict any of these things."
Al `Izz bin Abdussalam said, at the end of his book, Al Qawa'id,
"Innovation is divided into obligatory, forbidden, recommended, disagreeable and permissible, and the way to know which is which is to match it against the religious law."
Clearly we see from the opinions of these righteous scholars, that to define innovations in worship as wholly negative without exception is ignorant. For these pious knowers, among them Imam Nawawi and Ash-Shafi'i, declared that innovations could be divided into good and bad, based on their compliance or deviance with religious law.
Moreover, the following Prophetic saying is known even to common Muslims, let alone scholars: "He who inaugurates a good practice (sunnatun hasana) in Islam earns the reward of it, and of all who perform it after him, without diminishing their own rewards in the least." Therefore it is permissible for a Muslim to originate a good practice, even if the Prophet didn't do it, for the sake of doing good and cultivating the reward. The meaning of inaugurate a good practice (sanna sunnatun hasana) is to establish a practice through personal reasoning (ijtihad) and derivation (istinbat) from the rules of religious law or its general texts. The actions of the Prophet's Companions and the generation following them which we have stated above is the strongest evidence.
The ones prejudiced against celebrating the Prophet's birthday have paved the way for their falsehood by deceiving the less-learned among the Muslims. The prejudiced ones claim that Ibn Kathir writes in his Al Bidaya wal Nihaya (11-172) that the Fatimide-Obaidite state, which descends from the Jew, Obaidillah Bin Maimoon Al Kaddah, ruler of Egypt from 357-567 A.H., innovated the celebration of a number of days, among them, the celebration of the Prophet's birthday. This treacherous lie is a grave insult to the scholarship of Ibn Kathir and the scholarship of all Islam. For in truth, Ibn Kathir writes about the Prophet's birthday in Al bidaya wal nihaya [13-136] "The victorious king Abu Sa'id Kawkaburi, was one of the generous, distinguished masters, and the glorious kings; he left good impressions and used to observe the honorable Mawlid by having a great celebration. Moreover, he was chivalrous, brave, wise, a scholar, and just." Ibn Kathir continues, "And he used to spend three hundred thousand Dinars on the Mawlid." In support, Imam Al Dhahabi writes of Abu Sa'id Kawkaburi, inSiyar A'laam al nubala' [22-336] "He was humble, righteous, and loved religious learned men and scholars of Prophetic saying."
Following are some sayings of the rightly guided Imams regarding the Mawlid.
Imam Al Suyuti, from Alhawi lil fatawi, wrote a special chapter entitled "The Good Intention in Commemorating the Mawlid," at the beginning of which he said,
"There is a question being asked about commemorating the Mawlid of the Prophet in the month of Rabi' Al Awal: what is the religious legal ruling in this regard, is it good or bad? Does the one who celebrates get rewarded or not?" The answer according to me is as follows: To commemorate the Mawlid, which is basically gathering people together, reciting parts of the Qu'ran, narrating stories about the Prophet's birth and the signs that accompanied it, then serving food, and afterwards, departing, is one of the good innovations; and the one who practices it gets rewarded, because it involves venerating the status of the Prophet and expressing joy for his honorable birth.
Ibn Taymiyya said in his book Iqtida' Al Sirat Al Mustaqeem(pg. 266)
"Likewise, what some people have innovated, in competition with the Christians in celebrating the birth of Jesus, or out of love and veneration of the Prophet⦣128;榱uot; and he continues "⦣128;洨at the predecessors didn't do, even though there is a reason for it, and there is nothing against it." This is a saying of someone who set fanaticism aside and sought to please Allah and his Prophet. As far as we are concerned, we commemorate the Mawlid for no other reason but what Ibn Taymiya said, "Out of love and veneration of the Prophet." May Allah reward us according to this love and effort, and may Allah bless the one who said, "Let alone what the Christians claim about their Prophet, and you may praise Muhammad in any way you want and attribute to his essence all honors and to his status all greatness, for his merit has no limits that any expression by any speaker might reach."
In the same source previously mentioned, Al Suyuti said,
"Someone asked Ibn Hajar about commemorating the Mawlid. Ibn Hajar answered, "Basically, commemorating the Mawlid is an innovation that has not been transmitted by the righteous Muslims of the first three centuries. However, it involves good things and their opposites, therefore, whoever looks for the good and avoids the opposites then it is a good innovation.' It occurred to me (Al Suyuti) to trace it to its established origin, which has been confirmed in the two authentic books: Al Sahihain. When the Prophet arrived in Medina he found that the Jews fast the day of Aashura; when he inquired about it they said, "This is the day when Allah drowned the Pharaoh and saved Moses, therefore we fast it to show our gratitude to Allah.' From this we can conclude that thanks are being given to Allah on a specific day for sending bounty or preventing indignity or harm." Al Suyuti then commented, "What bounty is greater than the bounty of the coming of this Prophet, the Prophet of Mercy, on that day?"
"This is regarding the basis of Mawlid. As for the activities, there should be only the things that express thankfulness to Allah, such as what has been previously mentioned: reciting Qu'ran, eating food, giving charity, reciting poetry praising the Prophet or on piety which moves hearts and drives them to do good and work for the Hereafter."

These are the derivations that those opposed to Mawlid call false conclusions and invalid analogies.
Imam Mohammed bin Abu Bakr Abdullah Al Qaisi Al Dimashqi.
Jami' Al Athar fi Mawlid, Al Nabiy Al Mukhtar, Al lafz al ra'iq fi Mawlid khayr al khala'iq, and Mawlid al sadi fi Mawlid Al Hadi,
Imam Al `Iraqi.
Al Mawlid al heni fi al Mawlid al sani.
Mulla `Ali Al Qari.
Al Mawlid Al rawi fil Mawlid al Nabawi.
Imam Ibn Dahiya.
Al Tanweer fi Mawlid Al basheer Al Nadheer.
Imam Shamsu Din bin Nasir Al Dimashqi.
Mawlid al Sadi fi Mawlid Al Hadi. He is the one who said about the Prophet's estranged uncle, Abu Lahab, "This unbeliever who has been dispraised, "perish his hands" [111: 1], will stay in Hell forever. Yet, every Monday his torment is being reduced because of his joy at the birth of the Prophet." How much mercy can a servant expect who spends all his life joyous about the Prophet and dies believing in the Oneness of Allah?
Imam Shamsu Din Ibn Al Jazri.
Al Nashr fil Qira'at Al `Ashr, `Urf Al Ta'reef bil Mawlid al shareef.
Imam Ibn Al Jawzi
Imam Ibn Al Jawzi said about the honorable Mawlid, "It is security throughout the year, and glad tidings that all wishes and desires will be fulfilled."
Imam Abu Shama
Imam Abu Shama (Imam Nawawi's shaykh) in his book Al ba'ith ala Inkar Al bida` wal hawadith (pg.23) said, "One of the best innovations in our time is what is being done every year on the Prophet's birthday, such as giving charity, doing good deeds, displaying ornaments, and expressing joy, for that expresses the feelings of love and veneration for him in the hearts of those who are celebrating, and also, shows thankfulness to Allah for His bounty by sending His Messenger, the one who has been sent as a Mercy to the worlds."
Imam Al Shihab Al Qastalani
Imam Al Shihab Al Qastalani (Al Bukhari's commentator) in his book Al mawahib Al Ladunniya (1-148) said, "May Allah have mercy on the one who turns the nights of the month of the Prophet's birth into festivities in order to decrease the suffering of those whose hearts are filled with disease and sickness."
There are others who wrote and spoke about Mawlid, such as Imam Al Sakhawi, Imam Wajihu Din bin `Ali bin al Dayba' al Shaybani al Zubaidi, and many more, which we will not mention due to the limited space available. From these many evidences, it should be clear by now that celebrating the Mawlid is highly commendable and allowed. Surely we cannot simply shrug off as heretics the scholars and dignitaries of this nation who approved the commemoration of the Mawlid and wrote countless books on the subject. Are all these scholars, to whom the whole world is indebted for the beneficial books they have written on Prophetic sayings, jurisprudence, commentaries, and other sorts of knowledge, among the indecent who commit sins and evil? Are they, as those opposed to Mawlid claim, imitating the Christians in celebrating the birth of Jesus? Are they claiming that the Prophet did not convey to the nation what they should do? We leave answers to these questions up to you.
And yet we must continue to examine the errors which those opposed to Mawlid utter. They say "If celebrating the Mawlid is from the religion, then the Prophet would have made it clear to the nation, or would have done it in his lifetime, or it would have been done by the Companions." No one can say that the Prophet did not do it out of his humbleness, for this is speaking evil of him, so they cannot use this argument.
Furthermore, that the Prophet and his Companions did not do a certain thing does not mean they made that thing prohibited. The proof is in the Prophet's saying, "Whoever establishes, in Islam, a good practice..." cited earlier. This is the strongest evidence that gives encouragement to innovate whatever practices have foundations in religious law, even if the Prophet and his Companions did not do them. Al Shafi'i said, "Anything that has a foundation in religious law is not an innovation even if the Companions did not do it, because their refraining from doing it might have been for a certain excuse they had at the time, or they left it for something better, or perhaps not all of them knew about it." Therefore, whoever prohibits anything based on the concept that the Prophet did not do it, his claim has no proof and must be rejected.
Thus we say to the rejecters of Mawlid: based on the rule you have attempted to found, that is, that whoever does anything that the Prophet or his Companions did not do is committing innovation, it would follow that the Prophet did not complete the religion for his nation, and that the Prophet did not convey to the nation what they should do. No one says this or believes this except a heretic defecting from the religion of Allah. To the doubters of Mawlid we declare, "Based on what you say, we convict you." For you have innovated in the basics of worship a large number of things that the Prophet did not do⦣128;⦣128; nor did his Companions, the Generation after the Companions, or the Generation after them. For instance:
Congregating people behind one Imam to pray Salat al Tahajjud after Salat Al Tarawih, in the two Holy Mosques and other mosques.
Reciting the Prayer of Completion of the Qu'ran in Salat al Tarawih and also in Salat al Tahajjud.
Designating the 27th night of Ramadan to complete reading the entire Qu'ran in the two Holy Mosques.
A caller saying, after Salat al Tarawih, in the Qiyam prayer, "May Allah reward you."
Founding organizations which did not exist in the time of the Prophet, such as Islamic universities, societies for committing the Qu'ran to memory, and offices for missionary work, and committees for enjoining good and forbidding evil. We are not objecting to these things, since they are forms of good innovation. We merely list these innovations to point out that those who oppose Mawlid clearly contradict their own rule stating that anything that neither the Prophet nor his Companions did is innovation. And since they claim that all innovation is bad, they themselves are guilty.
Yet another claim they make is to say that those who commemorate the Mawlid are mostly indecent and immoral. This is a vulgar statement and it only reflects the character of the one saying it. Are all the distinguished scholars that we have mentioned, from the point of view of those opposed to Mawlid, indecent and immoral? We won't be surprised if this is what they believe. This is a most serious slander. We say, as the poet said, "When Allah wants to spread a virtue that has been hidden, He would let a tongue of an envious person know about it."
Those opposed to Mawlid, may Allah guide them, have confused some expressions, and claim that some religious scholars associate partners with Allah. Take for example the plea of Imam Al Busiery to Prophet Muhammad, "Oh, most generous of creation, I have no one to resort to, save You, when the prevailing event takes place." They must examine carefully the saying of Imam Al Busiery: inda hulul il amim, when the prevailing event takes place. What is al Amim? It means that which prevails over the whole universe, and all of creation, in referring to the Day of Judgment. Imam Al Busiery is asking intercession from the Prophet on the Day of Judgment because on that Day we will have no one to resort to, or appeal to. Imam Al Busiery seeks his intercession to Allah through the Prophet, for when all other Messengers and Prophets will be saying, "Myself, myself," the Prophet will be saying, "I am the one for it, I am for it [the Intercession]" It becomes even more clear now that the doubts of those opposed to Mawlid are unfounded, just as their charges of associating partners with Allah are unfounded. This is due to their blindness, both physical and spiritual.
Another similar example can be found in the well-known saying transmitted by the distinguished Imam Al Kamal bin Al Hammam Al Hanafi, author ofFath il Qadeer fi manasik al Farisi, and Sharh al Mukhtar min al sada al ahnaf. When Imam Abu Hanifa visited Medina, he stood in front of the honorable grave of the Prophet and said, "O, most honorable of the Two Weighty Ones (humankind and jinn)! O, treasure of mankind, shower your generosity upon me and please me with your pleasure. I am aspiring for your generosity, and there is no one for Abu Hanifa in the world but you." Again, we must not misinterpret this entreaty, but realize its true meaning.
Yet another misconception those opposed to Mawlid hold can be seen in their statements such as these: "What occurs during Mawlid is mixing between men and women, singing and playing musical instruments, and drinking alcohol." I myself know this to be a lie, for I have attended many Mawlids and have not seen any mixing, and never heard any musical instruments. And as for drunkenness, yes, I have seen it, but not that of worldly people. We found people intoxicated with the love of the Prophet, a state surpassing even the agony of death, which we know overcame our master Bilal at the time of his death. In the midst of this sweet stupor he was saying, "Tomorrow I shall meet the loved ones, Muhammad and his Companions."
To continue, those opposed to Mawlid say, "The day of the Prophet's birth is the same day of the week as his death. Therefore, joy on this day is no more appropriate than sorrow, and if religion is according to one's opinion, then this day should be a day of mourning and sorrow." This kind of lame eloquence, is answered by the Imam Jalal al Din al Suyuti, in Al hawi lil fatawi (pg.193), "The Prophet's birth is the greatest bounty, and his death is the greatest calamity. Religious law urges us to express thankfulness for bounties, and be patient and remain calm during calamities. Religious law has commanded us to sacrifice an animal on the birth of a child [and distribute the meat to the needy], which is an expression of gratitude and happiness with the newborn, while it did not command us to sacrifice at the time of death. Also, it prohibited wailing and showing grief. Therefore, the rules of Divine Law indicate that it is recommended to show joy during the month of the Prophet's birth, and not to show sorrow for his death."
Furthermore, Ibn Rajab, in his book Al lata'if, dispraising the rejecters of Mawlid based on the above argument, said, "Some designated the day of Aashura as a funeral ceremony for the murder of Al Hussein. But neither Allah nor His Prophet commanded that the days of the prophets' great trials or deaths should be declared days of mourning, let alone those with lesser rank."
We conclude this article with a saying of the Prophet, which has been narrated by Abu Ya'la, from Hudhaifa and about which Ibn Kathir said, "It's chain of transmission is good." Abu Ya'la said, "The Prophet has said, "One of the things that concerns me about my nation is a man who studied the Qu'ran, and when its grace started to show on him and he had the appearance of a Muslim, he detached himself from it, and threw it behind his back, and went after his neighbor with a sword and accused him of associating partners with Allah.' I then asked, "Oh, Prophet of Allah, which one is more guilty of associating partners with Allah, the accused or the accuser?' The Prophet said, "It is the accuser.'"
Completed, with all Praises to Allah and salutations and peace be upon our master Muhammad and the family of Muhammad and his Companions.

Sunday, February 13, 2011

വിശുദ്ധ ഖുര്‍ആന്‍ സംബന്ധിച്ച്‌

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hlvbnsâ Bcw`w

\_n (kz) bpsS hlvbn (Znhyt_m[\w) sâ Bcw`w, {]`mXw t]mse ]peÀ¶ kz]v\§fmbncp¶p. CXv JpÀB³ AhXcW¯nsâ sXm«p ap¼pÅ Bdp amk¡mew \nc´cw Dണ്ടmbns¡mണ്ടncp¶p. Ahkm\w X§Ä¡v GIm´hmkw CjvSIcambn. Znhk§tfmfw lndmAv ]ÀÆX¯nsâ Kplbn Hä¡ncp¶p C_mZ¯v (Bcm[\) sN¿pI ]Xnhmbn.

Hcp Zn\w Pn_vco (A) {]Xy£s¸«p. ""CJvdAv'' (\o hmbn¡pI) F¶p ]dªp. X§Ä "am A\ _nJmcnC³' (Rm³ hmbn¡p¶h\Ã) F¶p adp]Sn ]dªp. Pn_vco (A) \_n (kz) sb AW¨pIq«n. ]nSp¯w hn«p HmXm³ hoണ്ടpw Bhiys¸«p. am A\ _nJmcnC³ F¶p Xs¶ adp]Sn ]dªp. cണ്ടmaXpw AW¨pIq«n ]nSp¯w hn«p CJvdAv F¶p aq¶maXpw ]dªp. At¸mgpw X§Ä am A\ _nJmcnC³ F¶p Xs¶ adp]Sn ]dªp. aq¶maXpw AW¨pIq«n ]nSp¯w hn«psImണ്ടv Pn_vco (A) C{]Imcw HmXn tIĸn¨p. ""krjvSn¨h\mb \nsâ c£nXmhnsâ \ma¯n hmbn¡pI. a\pjys\ Ah³ {`qW¯n \n¶v krjvSn¨ncn¡p¶p. \o hmbn¡pI, \nsâ c£nXmhv t]\ sImണ്ടv ]Tn¸n¨h\mb Gähpw henb HuZmcyhm\mIp¶p. a\pjy\v Adnbm¯Xv Ah³ ]Tn¸n¨ncn¡p¶p'' (kqd AeJv:1þ5). CXmWv JpÀB³ AhXcW¯nsâ XpS¡w. t]Sn¨p hnd¨psImണ്ടmWv \_n (kz) ho«nte¡v aS§nbXv. JZoPm _ohn (d) \_n (kz) sb ]pX¸n¡pIbpw Bizkn¸n¡pIbpw sNbvXp. Xm³ Iണ്ടXv AÃmlphnsâ aeIv (amemJ) BsW¶pw aeIv \ÂInbXv hlvbv (Znhyt_m[\w) BsW¶pw X§Ä¡v t_m[yambn. hoണ്ടpw ae¡ns\ ImWm\pw hlvbv kzoIcn¡m\pw B{Klambn. ]t£, \mÂ]Xv Znhkt¯mfw IgnªmWv Pn_vco (A) hoണ്ടpw h¶Xv. Cu CSthf¡mWv ^XvdXp hlvbv F¶p ]dbp¶Xv. C¯hW Pn_vco (A) A´co£¯n Ccn¡p¶XmbmWv \_n (kz) Iണ്ടXv. \_n (kz) `bt¯msS ho«n sN¶v ]pX¨p InS¶p. At¸mÄ Pn_vco (A) h¶p ""tl, ]pX¨p aqSnbht\, Fgpt¶äp (P\§sf) Xm¡oXp sN¿pI. X§fpsS c£nXmhns\ alXzs¸Sp¯pI, X§fpsS hkv{X§Ä ip²nbm¡pI……. X§fpsS c£nXmhn\p thണ്ടn £a ssIs¡mÅpI'' (kqd ap±YvYnÀ:1þ7) HmXn tIĸn¨p. CXp aX {]t_m[\¯n\pÅ IÂ]\bmbncp¶p.

hnip² JpÀB³ JpÀB\n ]Xnhmt¡ണ്ടh
JpÀB\nse Nne `mK§Ä Nne {]tXyI kµÀ`§fn {]tXyIw kp¶¯mIp¶p. Znhtk\ Hmtcm ^Àfv \nkvImc¯n\p tijhpw Xmsg ]dbp¶h kp¶¯mWv. kqd¯p ^mXnl. kqd¯p CJvemkzv (112þmw A²ymbw). kqd¯p ^eJv (113þmw A²ymbw). kqd¯p¶mkv (114þmw A²ymbw). Bb¯p IpÀkn¿v (A _Jd: 255). ilnZÃmlp... (Bep Cwdm³: 18).
Dd§m\pt±in¨m Cu Bsd®¯n\p ]pdsa, Ba\Àdkq (A _Jd: 284þ286). kqd¯p Im^ndq³ (109þmw A²ymbw) F¶nh HmXepw kp¶¯mWv.

FÃm Znhkhpw cmhnsebpw sshIpt¶chpw Xmsg ]dbp¶ Bb¯pIÄ HmX kp¶¯pണ്ടv. eu A³kÂ\m (livdv: 20þ24). lmaow..... (Km^nÀ: 1þ3). A^lkn_vXpw..... (apAvan\q³: 115).

Ggv kqd¯pIÄ FÃm Znhkhpw ]Xnhm¡Â kp¶¯mWv. Aen^v emw aow kPvZ (32þmw A²ymbw). kqd¯p bmko³ (36þmw A²ymbw). kqd¯p±pJm³ (44þmw A²ymbw). kqd¯p hmJnAx (56þmw A²ymbw). kqd¯p apÂIv (67þmw A²ymbw). kqd¯pÊÂke (99þmw A²ymbw). kqd¯p¯ImkpÀ (102þmw A²ymbw).
Ch ]Xnhm¡m³ Ignbm¯ ]£w kPvZ, hmJnAx F¶o kqd¯pIsf¦nepw cm{Xn ]Xnhmbn HmtXണ്ടXmWv. acWmk¶\mb HcmfpsS kao]¯v kqd¯p bmko³, kqd¯pÀdAvZv F¶nh HmX kp¶¯pണ്ടv. ChsbÃmw lZokpIfn h¶n«pÅXmWv.

JpÀB³ a\:]mTam¡Â

JpÀB³ a\x]mTam¡Â hfsc t{ijvTamb Hcp Bcm[\bmIp¶p. am{Xaà AXv ^Àfv In^mbx (kmaqlnI _m[yX) IqSnbmWv. At¸mÄ apkvenw kapZmb¯n JpÀB³ a\x]mTam¡nb Hcp hn`mKw F¡me¯pw Dണ്ടmIWw. a\x]mTam¡nb HcmÄ t]mepw CÃmsX h¶m B ImeL«¯nse FÃm apkvenwIfpw Ipä¡mcmIpw.
JpÀB³ a\x]mTam¡nbhÀ¡v ]e t{ijvTXIfpw lZokpIfn h¶n«pണ്ടv.
AÃmlphnsâ XWÂ AÃmsX asämcp XWÂ CÃm¯ Znhkw JpÀB³ hmlIÀ Ahsâ XWenembncn¡pw.

JpÀB³ hÃh\pw HmXn a\x]mTam¡pIbpw AXnse lemens\ lemembn kzoIcn¡pIbpw ldmans\ ldmambn kzoIcn¡pIbpw sNbvXm AÃmlp Ahs\ kzÀK¯n {]thin¸n¡pIbpw \cImhIminIfmbn¯oÀ¶ Ahsâ ]¯p _Ôp¡fn Ahsâ in]mÀi kzoIcn¡pIbpw sN¿pw (XnÀapZn).
JpÀB³ AÂ]w t]mepw a\x]mTam¡m¯h³ iq\yamb hoSpt]msebmWv (XnÀapZn). JpÀB³ ]Tn¨h³ AXp ad¡Â h³tZmjamWv. \_n (kz) ]dbp¶p: ""Fsâ kapZmb¯nsâ ]m]§Ä F\n¡p ImWn¡s¸«p. F¶m hnip² JpÀB\n \n¶v HcmÄ¡v \ÂIs¸« Hcp kqdt¯m Hcp Bbt¯m AbmÄ ad¡p¶Xnt\¡mÄ henb asämcp ]m]s¯bpw Rm³ Iണ്ടn«nÃ'' (A_qZmhqZv). 

JpÀB³ ]mcmbWw sN¿pt¼mÄ Xmsg sImSp¯ AZ_pIÄ (acymZIÄ) ]men¡Â kp¶¯mWv. hpfqAv sN¿pI. ankvhmIv sN¿pI. t\cs¯ hpfqAv sN¿pt¼mÄ ankvhmIv sNbvXn«psണ്ട¦nepw JpÀB³ ]mcmbW thfbn AXp {]tXyIw kp¶¯pണ്ടv. hr¯nbpÅ Øe¯p sh¨mbncn¡pI. akvPnZv (]Ån) BWv Gähpw D¯aw. Jn_ve¡v A`napJambn `àn]qÀÆw Xe Xmgv¯n Ccn¡pI. ]mcmbWw XpS§pt¼mÄ "ADuZp_nÃmln an\ssÈXzm\nÀdPow' (i]n¡s¸« ]nimNn \n¶p AÃmlphnt\mSv Rm³ Imh tXSp¶p), "_nkvanÃmlnÀdlvam\nÀdlow' (ImcpWyI\pw IcpWmhmcn[nbpamb AÃmlphnsâ \ma¯n Rm³ XpS§p¶p) F¶p sNmÃpI. F¶m Xu_x kqd¯n (9þmw A²ymbw) _nkvan sNmÃcpXv.
JpÀB³ "XÀ¯oÂ' sN¿pI.(\nba§Ä ]men¨psImണ്ടv kmhImiw HmXp¶Xn\mWv XÀ¯o F¶p ]dbp¶Xv). AÀYw Nn´n¨pw kmcw {Kln¨pw HmXpI. AXmWv JpÀB³ ]mcmbW¯nsâ Gähpw {][m\s¸« Dt±iyw. AÀYw Adnªnsænepw ]mcmbW¯n\v {]Xn^ew e`n¡pw. dlva¯nsâ Bb¯v HmXnbm kt´mj]qÀÆw dlva¯v tNmZn¡pIbpw in£bpsS Bb¯v HmXnbm `bt¯msS c£ tNmZn¡pIbpw sN¿pI. JpÀBsâ Xm¡oXpIÄ Nn´n¨pw Xsâ hogvNIÄ HmÀ¯pw IcbpI. i_vZ`wKntbmsS HmXpI. ]t£, JpÀB³ sImണ്ടv Km\w Be]n¡m³ ]mSnÃ. \nkvIcn¡p¶hÀt¡m Dd§p¶hÀt¡m ieyw t\cnSpIbnsæn Dds¡ HmXpI. temIam\yw hcpsa¶v Iണ്ടm ]Xps¡ HmXp¶XmWv kp¶¯v. JpÀB³ HmXp¶Xn\nSbn kwkmcn¡pItbm Nncn¡pItbm A\mhiy {]hÀ¯\§fn GÀs¸SpItbm sN¿mXncn¡pI. kPvZbpsS Bb¯v HmXnbm kpPqZv sN¿pI. JpÀB³ JXvav sNbvX DSs\ ZpBAv sN¿pI. Hcp JXvav XoÀ¶m DSs\ asämcp JXvav XpS§pI.

JpÀB³ ]mcmbWw hfsc ]pWyIcamb Hcp C_mZ¯v (Bcm[\) BWv. AÀYw AdnbmsX ]mcmbWw sNbvXmepw {]Xn^ew e`n¡p¶ {KÙamWv JpÀB³. \_n (kz) ]dbp¶p: ""AÃmlphnsâ {KÙ¯n \n¶pw Hcp lÀ^v (A£cw) hÃh\pw HmXnbm AXv Ah\v Hcp ]pWyIÀ½amWv. Hcp ]pWyIÀ½¯n\v ]¯p aS§v {]Xn^ew e`n¡pw. "Aen^v emw aow' H¶n¨p Hc£camsW¶v Rm³ ]dbp¶nÃ. Aen^v Hc£chpw emw asämc£chpw aow thsd Hc£chpamWv'' (XnÀanZn). At¸mÄ "Aen^v emw aow' HmXpt¼mÄ ap¸Xv lk\¯n (]pWyw) sâ {]Xn^ew e`n¡pw.
Camw \hhn (d) ]dbp¶p:""hnip² JpÀB³ cm{Xnbpw bm{Xbnepw AÃm¯t¸mgpw {i²m]qÀÆw HmtXണ്ടXmWv. ]qÀÆoIcmb alm·mÀ JpÀB³ Hcp JXvav (JpÀB³ apgph\pw HmXpI) XoÀ¡p¶Xn\v hyXykvXamb ImebfhpIfmWv kzoIcn¨ncp¶Xv. NneÀ cണ്ടp amk¯n Hcp XhWbpw thsd NneÀ ]¯p Znhk¯n Hcp XhWbpw JXvav sNbvXncp¶p. JXvav XoÀ¡p¶Xn\v F«v, Ggv, Bdv, \mev, aq¶v F¶o Znhk§Ä kzoIcn¨hcpw AhcpsS Iq«¯nepണ്ടmbncp¶p. F¶m Nne alm·mÀ Hcp cm¸Ien cണ്ടp JXvtam aq¶v JXvtam XoÀ¡p¶hcmbncp¶p. Hcp Znhk¯n F«v JXvav XoÀ¯ Nnecpapണ്ടv'' (A AZvImÀ).

alm\mb A_qssekv (d) ]dbp¶p: JpÀB³ IqSpX HmXm³ Ignbnsæn hÀj¯n cണ്ടp XhW JXvav sNbvXm JpÀB\nt\mSpÅ IS¸mSv \ndthämw F¶mWv Camw A_ql\o^ (d) ]dªn«pÅXv.
F¶m ImcWw IqSmsX JpÀB³ JXvav \mÂ]Xv Znhkt¯¡mÄ ]n´n¡p¶Xv Idml¯msW¶v Camw AlvaZv (d) ]dªncn¡p¶p. \_n (kz) ]dbp¶p: ""\n§Ä JpÀB³ ]mcmbWw sN¿pI. JpÀB³ AXnsâ Iq«pImÀ¡v in]mÀiI\mbn ]ctemI¯v hcpw'' (apkvenw).
JpÀB³ ]mcmbWw sImണ്ടv kam[m\w hÀ²n¡psa¶pw JpÀB³ HmXn InS¶m Ahsâ kwc£W¯n\mbn AÃmlp aeIns\ GÀs¸Sp¯psa¶pw lZokpIfn h¶n«pണ്ടv.

AÃmlphnsâ hlvbv CÃmsX \_n (kz) hÃXpw ]dbpItbm {]hÀ¯n¡pItbm AwKoImcw \ÂIpItbm sN¿pIbnÃ. AÃmlp ]dbp¶p: ""dkq \n§Ä¡v \ÂInbXv kzoIcn¡pI, AhnSp¶v \n§Ä¡v hntcm[n¨Xv shSnbpIbpw sN¿pI'' (A livÀ: 7). JpÀB\pw kp¶¯pamWv \_n (kz) kapZmb¯n\v \ÂInbn«pÅXv. JpÀB\nsâ hymJym\hpw hniZmwihpamWv kp¶¯v. ]mcmbWw Bcm[\bmbn \nÝbn¡s¸« apAvPnkmb Iemw BWtÃm JpÀB³. F¶m \_n (kz) bpsS hm¡v, {]hr¯n, au\m\phmZw F¶nh¡mWv kp¶¯v F¶p ]dbp¶Xv.

kp¶¯n Hcp hn`mKamb lZokv JpZvkn AÃmlphnsâ hN\§fmsW¦nepw AXp JpÀB\n s]«XÃ. ImcWw AXv apAvPnkv AÃ. JpÀB\pw kp¶¯pw A\pkcn¨p Pohn¨p acn¡p¶ kzmenlpIfn AÃmlp \s½bpw amXm]nXm¡sfbpw DkvXmZpamscbpw DÄs¸Sp¯s«. Bao³.

hnip² JpÀB³ Ggmw BImi¯n\p apIfn ØnXn sN¿p¶ "eulp alv^qfn' (kq£n¸p]eI) tcJs¸Sp¯nbncp¶p. AhnsS \n¶pw JpÀB³ H¶n¨p H¶mw BImi¯nse "ss_¯p CÊ'bnte¡v H¶maXmbn Cd¡s¸«p. hnip² dafm\nse JZvdnsâ cm{XnbnemWv AXpണ്ടmbXv. ]n¶oSv AhktcmNnXambn Ccp]¯naq¶v kwhÕc¡me¯n\pÅnembn JpÀB³ ss_¯p CÊbn \n¶v Pn_vco (A) aptJ\ \_n (kz) ¡v AÃmlp Cd¡ns¡mSp¯p. At¸mÄ JpÀB\n\p cണ്ടv AhXcWw Dണ്ടmbn«pണ്ടv. H¶mw AhXcWw BImihmknIfn JpÀB\nsâ alXzw hnfw_cw sN¿p¶Xn\p thണ്ടnbmbncp¶p. AhktcmNnXambpÅ c­ണ്ടmas¯ AhXcW¯n ]e clky§fpw Dണ്ടv.
Pn_vcoen (A)  \n¶v Xncpta\n¡pw \_n (kz) bn \n¶v kzlm_¯n\pw JpÀB³ lrZnØam¡Â IqSpX Ffp¸am¡pI.
hlvbpambn Pn_vco (A) CS¡nsS hcp¶XpsImണ്ടv \_n (kz) ¡v a\xkam[m\hpw kt´mjhpw hÀ²n¡pI.
CkvemanI \nba§Ä ]Sn]Snbmbn \S¸n hcp¯pI.
A¸t¸mgpണ്ടmIp¶ kw`h§Ä¡\pkcn¨p hn[nIÄ AhXcn¸n¡pI.

JpÀB\nsâ {Iaw hnip² JpÀB\n\p cണ്ടp {Iaapണ്ടv.
H¶v: XÀ¯o_p¯nemhx (]mcmbW {Iaw). C¶p apkzvl^pIfn ImWp¶Xpw apkvenw temIw \mfnXphsc AwKoIcn¨p hcp¶Xpamb {IaamWnXv. Cu {Ia¯nemWv JpÀB³ eulp alv^qfn tcJs¸Sp¯nbn«pÅXpw. .
 cണ്ടv: XÀ¯o_p \pkq (AhXcW {Iaw). kw`h§Ä¡pw kµÀ`§Ä¡pw A\pkcn¨mWv Pn_vco (A) aptJ\ JpÀB³ AhXcn¸n¨n«pÅXv. CXn\mWv XÀ¯o_p \pkq F¶p ]dbp¶Xv. CXv XÀ¯o_p¯nemhxbn \n¶pw hyXykvXamWv. F¦nepw Hmtcm Bb¯pw AhXcn¡pt¼mÄ GXv kqd¯n FhnsS tNÀ¡Wsa¶v Pn_vco (A) \_n (kz) sb ]Tn¸n¡pIbpw \_n (kz) A{]Imcw kzlm_¯ns\ ]Tn¸n¡pIbpw sNbvXp. kqd¯pIfpsS {Iahpw C{]Imcw Xs¶bmWv. JpÀB\n BZyw Cd§nbXv "CJvdAv _nkvan'bpw Ahkm\w Cd§nbXv kqd¯p _Jdbnse 281þmw kqàhpamWv. Ccp]¯naq¶v hÀj¡mew sImണ്ടmWv JpÀB\nsâ AhXcWw ]qÀ¯nbmbXv. JpÀB\n \n¶v lnPvd¡p ap¼v Cd§nbXn\v "a¡n¿v' F¶pw lnPvd¡p tijw Cd§nbXn\v "aZ\n¿v' F¶pw ]dbp¶p. DZmlcWambn kqd¯p ^mXznl a¡n¿pw kqd¯p _Jd aZ\n¿pamWv.  
JpÀB\ns\ BZcn¡Â

eulp alv^qfn FgpXn kq£n¨n«pÅ hnip² JpÀB³ AhnsS \n¶v alm·mcmb aeIpIÄ hnip² {KÙ§fn FgpXn hnip²ntbmsS H¶mw BImi¯v kq£n¨ncn¡p¶p. hnip²ntbmsS BImi¯v kq£n¡s¸« Cu JpÀB³ `qanbnse kXyhnizmknIfpw ip²ntbmSp IqSn am{Xsa ssIImcyw sN¿m³ ]mSpÅq. AÃmlp ]dbp¶p: ""BZcWobhpw D¶Xhpw ]cnip²hpamb {KÙ§fn alm·mcpw ]pWymßm¡fpamb Fgp¯pImcpsS ssIIfn AXp ØnXn sN¿p¶p'' (kqd A_k:13þ16), ""ip²nbpÅhcÃmsX JpÀB³ kv]Àin¡m³ ]mSnÃ'' (kqd A hmJnA:79).
henb Aip²nbpÅhÀ JpÀB³ HmXmt\m sXmSmt\m Npa¡mt\m ]mSpÅXÃ. sNdnb Aip²nbpÅhÀ¡v HmX A\phZ\obamsW¦nepw sXmSepw Npa¡epw ldmw (\njn²w) BWv. Fgp¯v sXmSp¶Xpt]me Xs¶ apkzvl^n Fgp¯nÃm¯ `mKhpw AXv kq£n¨n«pÅ Ddbpw JpÀB³ FgpXnbn«pÅ t_mÀUv apXembhbpw hpfqAv CÃmsX sXmS ldmamWv. F¶mÂ, ]T\mhiymÀYw hpfqAv CÃmsX hIXncnhmb Ip«nIÄ JpÀB³ sXmSp¶Xpw Npa¡p¶Xpw XSbs¸tSണ്ടXnÃ. JpÀB³ hIXncnhv BIm¯ Ip«nIfpsS I¿n sImSp¡p¶Xpw Ad_nbÃm¯ `mjbn FgpXp¶Xpw \mWbw apXembh JpÀB\nsâ AI¯v sh¡p¶Xpw A\mhiyambn Iodn \in¸n¡p¶Xpw JpÀB³ FgpXnb hkvXp¡Ä hngp§epw JpÀB\n\p t\sc Im \o«epw ldmamWv. JpÀB³ FgpXn ambn¨ ]m\obw IpSn¡p¶Xpw _dIXn\p thണ്ടn JpÀB³ FgpXn Npa¡p¶Xpw ldmaÃ. A{]Imcw Xs¶ apkzvl^v aäp Nc¡pItfmsSm¸w Npa¡mhp¶XmWv. JpÀB\ns\¡mÄ IqSpXse¦n X^vkoÀ {KÙ§Ä sXmSpIbpw Npa¡pIbpw sN¿mhp¶XmWv. JpÀB\nsâ BZchn\p `wKw hcpsa¶v ImWpt¼mÄ AXp ambn¨p Iftbണ്ടXmWv. AXn\p kuIcyw Csæn Icn¨p IfbWw. A\mhiyambn JpÀB³ Icn¡m³ ]mSnÃ. JpÀB³ DbÀ¶ Øe¯v kpc£nXambpw hr¯nbmbpw kq£nt¡ണ്ടXmWv. Aeamcbn apIÄ X«n FÃm hkvXp¡Ä¡pw apIfnemWv JpÀB³ kq£nt¡ണ്ടXv. Ccn¡p¶ ]oT¯nsâtbm InS¡p¶ I«nensâtbm Nph«n apkzvlt^m AXv kq£n¨ s]«ntbm sh¡m³ ]mSpÅXÃ.

B[p\nI imkv{X¯nsâ ]pXnb Isണ്ട¯epIÄ hnip² JpÀB³ 1400 hÀj§Ä¡p ap¼p {]Jym]n¨ ]e Imcy§sfbpw icnh¨p sImണ്ടncn¡pIbmWv. tIcf `mjm C³Ìnäyq«v 1999þ {]kn²oIcn¨ "]mc¼cyhpw t¢mWn§pw' F¶ ]pkvXI¯n tUm. _meIrjvW³ FgpXp¶p. ""{]XypXv]mZ\¯nsâbpw hfÀ¨bpsSbpw s]mXpcoXn FÃmhÀ¡pw Adnhpണ്ടv. ]t£, ssewKnI {]XypÂ]mZ\¯n kv{Xo¡pw ]pcpj\pw Xpey ]¦psണ്ട¶ Imcyw hfsc¡mew imkv{XÚ·mÀ¡p t]mepw AdnbnÃmbncp¶p'' .(4)
F¶m ASp¯Imew hsc, a\pjykrjvSn ]pcpj _oP¯n \n¶p am{XamsW¶mbncp¶p imkv{X \nKa\w. JpÀB³ 1,400 hÀj§Ä¡p ap¼pXs¶ kv{Xo¡pw ]pcpj\pw iniphnsâ aqetImi¯n ]¦psണ്ട¶p ]Tn¸n¡pIbpണ്ടmbn.(5) ]pcpjsâbpw kv{XobpsSbpw _oPmÞ§fpsS k¦e\ ^eambpണ്ടmIp¶ knàmÞ¯n \n¶mWp inip P\n¡p¶sX¶ ]pXnb imkv{X kXys¯ t\cs¯Xs¶ A\mhcWw sNbvXpsImണ്ടv hnip² JpÀB³ ]dªp: ""\nÝbambpw a\pjys\ \mw "\pXzv^Xp³ AwimPn' \n¶v, Ahs\ ]co£n¡phm\mbn, krjvSn¨ncn¡p¶p. A§s\ Ahs\ \mw tIÄhnbpÅh\pw ImgvNbpÅh\pam¡nbncn¡p¶p''.(1) F´mWp \pXzv^Xp³ AwimPv? ]pcpjsâ _oPhpw kv{XobpsS AÞhpw kwKan¨p k½n{iamIp¶ {Zhy¯n\mWp \pXzv^Xp³ AwimPv F¶p ]dbp¶Xv. hn{ipX JpÀB³ hymJymXm¡fmb CIvcna, apPmlnZv, lk³, d_oAv XpS§nbhÀ \evInb AÀYamWnXv.(2) Cu JpÀB³ hmIy¯nsâ Bibw IqSpX hyàam¡p¶XmWp Xmsg ]dbp¶ lZokp kw`hw: Hcn¡Â Hcp PqX³ {]hmNIcpsS kao]¯neqsS \S¡pIbpണ്ടmbn. Xncpta\n Xsâ injy·mtcmSp kwkmcn¡pIbmbncp¶p. At¸mÄ JpssdinIÄ ]dªp: tl PqXm, Cu a\pjy³ {]hmNI\msW¶p hmZn¡p¶p. At¸mÄ PqX³ ]dªp: ""F¦n Hcp {]hmNI\ÃmsX aämÀ¡pw a\Ênem¡m³ km[n¡m¯ Hcp Imcys¯¡pdn¨p Rm³ At±lt¯mSp tNmZn¡pw''. A\´cw PqX³ h¶p {]hmNIcpsS Nmc¯ncp¶v C{]Imcw tNmZn¨p: Hm apl½Zv, a\pjy³ F´n\m krjvSn¡s¸Sp¶p? ""PqXm, cണ്ടn \n¶pw Ah³ krjvSn¡s¸Sp¶p. ]pcpjtImi¯n \n¶pw kv{XotImi¯n \n¶pw''.(3)
a\pjyIpe¯n Hcp t¢mWnMv inip ]nd¶psh¶Xv Ckveman\v Hcn¡epw shÃphnfnbmIp¶nÃ. Ckvemansâ GsX¦nepsamcp hnizmk {]amW¯nt\m AwKoIrX XXz¯nt\m AXp bmsXmcp hn[¯nepw shÃphnfn krjvSn¡p¶nÃ. {]XypX hnip² JpÀB\nse Nne {]kvXmh\IÄ¡v AXv Dt]mÂ_eI amhpIbmWp sN¿p¶Xv. kv{Xo ]pcpjkwKatam _oPmÞ k¦e\tam IqSmsX a\pjy krjvSn \S¯pIsb¶Xv Akw`hyasöv BZw \_n (A) sâbpw Cukm \_n (A) sâbpw P\\kw`hw Nqണ്ടn¡mWn¨p sImണ്ടp JpÀB³ ]Tn¸n¡p¶p.
""AÃmlphn¦Â CukmbpsS (krjvSnIÀ½¯nsâ) \ne]mSv BZantâXp t]msebmWv. BZans\ a®n \n¶h³ cq]s¸Sp¯n. F¶n«v Dണ്ടmIq F¶v At±lt¯mSp ]dªp. At¸mÄ At±laXm Dണ്ടmIp¶p''.(1)

BZna a\pjy\mb BZw \_n (A) s\ AÃmlp ]nXmhpw amXmhpanÃmsX krjvSn¨t¸mÄ Cukm \_n (A) s\ Ah³ ]nXmhnÃmsXbmWp krjvSn¨ncn¡p¶Xv. CXp {]]© {kjvSmhp \S¯nb t¢mWn§msW¶p thWsa¦n ]dbmw. a®n \n¶v BZans\ krjvSn¨ ]cnWma {]P\\s¯ Be¦mcnIambn am{Xw \ap¡p t¢mWnMv F¶p ]dbmw. F¶m aÀban \n¶v   Cukm (A) AhÀIsf krjvSn¨tXm? hn`P\ {]P\\hpw apIpf\ hpsams¡ t¢mWn§n s]Sp¯msa¦n CXpw Hcp t¢mWnMv Xs¶bmsW¶p ]dbmatÃm.

C\n JpÀB\nse asämcp t¢mWnMv ]dbmw. BZw \_n (A) sâ icoc¯n \n¶v Hcp `mKsaSp¯p {]Ya kv{Xobpw ZznXob a\pjy\pamb lÆm (A) sb AÃmlp krjvSn¨p. ]p\cpÂ]¯nbpw ImbnI {]P\\hpsams¡ t¢mWn§nsâ C\§fn s]Sp¯msa¦n CXpw Hcp t¢mWn§msW¶ Imcyw hfsc hyàw. CXns\¡pdn¨p hnip² JpÀB³ C{]ImcamWp ]dªn«pÅXv:
""a\pjytc, Hcp hyànbn \n¶p \n§sf krjvSn¡pIbpw AXn \n¶pXs¶ AXnsâ CWsb krjvSn¡pIbpw Ahcncphcn \n¶pambn [mcmfw ]pcpj·mscbpw kv{XoIsfbpw hym]n¸n¡pIbpw sNbvX \n§fpsS c£nXmhns\ \n§Ä kq£n¡pI.''(2)
BZw (A) sâ hmcnsbÃn \n¶mWv Cu t¢mWnMv \S¯nbXv. thZ\bdnbmXncn¡m³ At±ls¯ XZhkcw AÃmlp Dd¡n¡nS¯nbncp¶p.(1) kv{Xo Hcp hmcnsbÃn \n¶p krjvSn¡s¸«p F¶ {]hmNIcpsS {]kvXmh\ _pJmcnbpw apkvenapw (2) D²cn¨n«pണ്ടv. ]t£, a\pjycpsS t¢mWn§nsâ sshIrX§tfm \yq\XItfm {kjvSmhnsâ t¢mWn§nenÃ. Camw dmkn (d) ]dbp¶p: kIe a\pjyscbpw Hcp a\pjy\n \n¶p krjvSn¡pIsb¶Xp Ignhnsâ anIhn\p Gäw henb sXfnhmIp¶p. ImcWw, C¡mcyw tIhew {]IrXn aqeambncp¶psh¦n Hcp a\pjy\n \n¶pണ്ടmb kIecpw BIrXnbnepw {]IrXnbnepw ]ckv]c kZriÀ am{Xamtbt\. a\pjy hyànIfn shfp¯h³, Idp¯h³, Nph¶h³, Xhn«p \ndapÅh³, kpµc³, hncq]n, ZoÀLImb³, {lkzImb³ F¶n§s\ sshhn[yw ImWphm³ \ap¡p km[yambt¸mÄ AhcpsS {kjvSmhpw \nb´mhpw kzX{´\mb Hcp {]hÀ¯I\mWv, bm{´nI \nan¯tam {]IrXn iàntbm Aà F¶p \ap¡p a\Ênem¡m³ km[n¨p. At¸mÄ Ah³ kÀÆ ià\pw kÀÆÚ\pamsW¶p h¶p. F¦n Ahsâ \nba§sfbpw hn[nhne¡pIsfbpw A\pkcn¡Â A\nhmcyamsW¶pw h¶p.(3)
C\n \S¡m\ncn¡p¶ AÛpXIcamb asämcp t¢mWn§ns\¡pdn¨p hnip² JpÀB³ {]kvXmhn¨n«pണ്ടv. a®n \n¶v BhnÀ`hn¨ a\pjy³ acn¨p a®Snª tijw, `qanbn Ahtijn¡p¶ Ahsâ Hcp icoc tImi¯n \n¶v Ah\p ]p\ÀP·w \ÂIpIbmWv {]kvXpX t¢mWnMv. hnip² JpÀB³ ]ebnS§fnembn {]]©\w sNbvX Cu `hnjy kw`h¯nsâ kw{Klw Cu hmIy¯n hmbn¡mw:
""`qanbn \n¶mWp \n§sf \mw krjvSn¨Xv. AXnte¡p Xs¶ \n§sf \mw aS¡p¶p. AXn \n¶p Xs¶ asämcp {]mhiyw \n§sf \mw ]pd¯p sImണ്ടp hcnIbpw sN¿pw''.(4)

kky_oP§Ä A\pIqekmlNcyw e`n¡pt¼mÄ apf¨p s]m§p¶Xp t]mse acn¨p a®Snª a\pjy³ Ahsâ tImSn¡W¡n\p skÃpIfn \n¶v AÃmlp Ahtijn¸n¨ {]tXyIamb Hcp kq£va tImi¯n \n¶p ]p\ÀP· kab¯v DbnÀs¯gpt¶Â¡p¶p.
hfsc¡pdª Xm]s¯t¸mseXs¶ hfsc hÀ²n¨ Xm]hpw hn¯p apfbv¡p¶Xn\p {]mXnIqeyw krjvSn¡p¶p. CuÀ¸¯nsâ A`mh¯n \njv{Inbambn¡nS¡p¶ hn¯v shÅw e`n¡pt¼mÄ apf¨p s]m§pIbmbn. AÃmlp ]dbp¶p:
""`qan hcണ്ടp \nÀPohambn¡nS¡p¶Xmbn«p Xm¦Ä¡p ImWmw. F¶m AXn \mw shÅw hÀjn¨m AXp ]pfIw sImÅpIbpw hnIkn¡pIbpw IuXpIapÅ FÃmbn\w sNSnIsfbpw DXv]mZn¸n¡pIbpw sN¿p¶p''.(1) BcmWnhnsS _oPs¯ apf¸n¡p¶Xv? kÀÆià\mb AÃmlp Xs¶. tNX\ hkvXphn \n¶v AtNX\ hkvXpshbpw AtNX\ hkvXphn \n¶v tNX\ hkvXpshbpw DXv]mZn¸n¡phm³ IgnhpÅ {kjvSmhv.

""[m\y _oP§sfbpw Cu¯¸ghn¯pIsfbpw ]nfÀ¡p¶h\mIp¶p AÃmlp, \nÝbw. \nÀPohambXn \n¶p Poh\pÅXns\ Ah³ ]pd¯psImണ്ടphcp¶p. Poh\pÅXn \n¶p \nÀPohambXns\bpw ]pd¯p sImണ്ടp hcp¶h\mWh³. F¶ncns¡, F§s\bmWp \n§Ä hgnsXän¡s¸Sp¶Xv''.(2)
C{]Imcw Xs¶bmWv a\pjysâ ]p\ÀP·¯nsâbpw IY. icoc¯nse injvSamb kq£vatImiw At\I kl{km_vZ§Ä `qanbn Ahtijn¡p¶p. ]n¶oSp ]p\cp°m\ kab¯v Hcp t\À¯ ag hÀjn¡p¶p. AtXmsS {]kvXpX tImiw hfcm³ XpS§p¶p. ]p\cp°m\¯n\pÅ Blzm\w, AÃmlphnsâ I ]\ {]Imcw Ckvdm^o AsselnÊemw \S¯pt¼mÄ a\pjy³ DbnÀs¯gpt¶Â¡p¶p. \_n (kz) ]dbp¶p:
""kzqdn H¶mas¯ {]Jym]\s¯¯pSÀ¶v kIeP\§fpw acn¨p Ignªm AÃmlp Hcp t\À¯ ag hÀjn¸n¡p¶p. AXpaqew a\pjy icoc§Ä apfbv¡pIbmbn. ]n¶oSp kzqdn asämcp {]Jym]\hpw IqSn Dണ്ടmIp¶p At¸mÄ AhcXm Fgpt¶äp I®pangn¨p t\m¡p¶p''.(1) hnip² JpÀB³ ]dbp¶p:
""AÃmlphnsâ A\p{Kl¯nsâ ^e§Ä t\m¡pI. `qan \nÀPohambn¡gnªXn\p tijw F§s\bmWv AXns\ Ah³ kPoham¡p¶Xv? AXp sN¿p¶h³ acn¨hsc Pohn¸n¡p¶h³ Xs¶, \nÝbw. Ah³ FÃmän\pw Ignhpä almià\t{X''.(2)
At\Imbncw kwhÕc§Ä \njv{Inbambn¡nS¶ Hcp tImiw ]n¶oSp kPohambn DbnÀs¯gpt¶Â¡p¶Xv C¶p imkv{XZrjvSym hnZqcaÃ. _oP§Ä¡pw hn¯pIÄ¡pw {]XnIqe kmlNcy§sf At\I kwhÕc§Ä XcWw sN¿phm\pw ]n¶oSv A\pIqe kmlNcyw e`n¡pt¼mÄ apf¨p hcphm\pw km[n¡pw. kÀÆmwKoIrXamb Cu imkv{Xob kXyw {_n«m\n¡m kÀÆ hnÚm\ tImiw C{]Imcw tcJs¸Sp¯p¶p:(There are seeds and spores that remain, so far as is known, perfectly dormant and totally without metabolic activity at low temperatures for hundreds, perhaps thousands of years).(3) Adnbs¸«X\pkcn¨v, ]qÀ®ambpw \n{ZmhØ ]qണ്ടpw ]cnWma {]hÀ¯\§Ä XoscbnÃmsXbpw hfsc¡pdª Xm]mhØbn \qämണ്ടpItfmfw, Hcpthf kl{km_vZ§tfmfw Xs¶ Ahtijn¡p¶ hn¯pIfpw _oP§fpapണ്ടv.(4)
P\nXIimkv{X¯nsâ BKaw Cu ]p\cp°m\ XXzs¯ Ipd¨p IqSn imkv{X kt¦X¯n h¨pXs¶ hyàam¡n¯cp¶p. a\pjy³ acn¨p a®SªXn\p tijw Ahsâ Hcp kq£va `mKw Ahtijn¡psa¶v ]dªphtÃm. AXn \n¶mWp ]n¶oSv Ahsâ ]p\ÀP·hpw ]p\xkwLmS\hpw Dണ്ടmIp¶Xv. \_n(kz) ]dbp¶p:
""a\pjyicoc¯n \n¶v Hcp AØn`mKsamgn¨p aäpÅsXÃmw \in¡pI Xs¶ sN¿pw. B \in¡m¯ `mKw "DPv_p±\_v' BIp¶p. AXn \n¶mWv A´yZn\w krjvSn ]p\xkwLmS\w \S¯s¸Sp¶Xv''.(1) F´mWv DPv_p±\_v, AÃmlphnsâ {]hmNItc? F¶p tNmZn¡s¸«p. AhnSp¶p ]dªp: ""AsXmcp ISpIp aWnt]mepÅ `mKamWv''.(2) \s«Ãnsâ ASn`mK¯pÅ AXnkq£vaamb AØn `mKamWv CXv. \m¡menIfpsS hm¡pänbpsS Øm\¯m WXncn¡p¶Xv.(3)

Hcp _oP tImi¯n \n¶v Hcp hr£s¯ DÂ]mZn¸n¡p¶Xp t]msebpw knàmÞw F¶ GI tImi¯n \n¶v Hcp a\pjys\ krjvSn¡p¶Xp t]msebpamWv CsX¶p ]dbmw. B[p\nI imkv{X¯nsâ t¢mWnMv kt¦X¯nte¡p Ibdn Hcp icoc tImi¯n \n¶v Hcp a\pjys\ t¢m¬ sN¿p¶ {]{InbbmWv F¶pw ]dbmhp¶XmWv. CX]cy´w ]dªXnsâ Dt±iyw ssewKnI tImi§fpsS k¦e\anÃmsX Hcp inip ]nd¡pIsb¶Xv hnip² JpÀB\nt\m AXp {]Xn\n[m\w sN¿p¶ ssZh hnizmk¯nt\m aX¯nt\m shÃphnfnbmIp¶nà F¶XmWv.

JpÀB³, {]hmNINcy F¶o {]mYanI t{kmXÊpIfn \n¶pw {]hmNI injy·mcpsS \S]SnIÄ, BZyIme aX]WvVnX·mcpsS ]T\§Ä, BßobmNmcy·mcpsS samgnIÄ, aX\nba{KÙ§Ä XpS§nb ZznXob t{kmXÊpIfn \n¶pw Ckvemansâ ]cnØnXn ]mT§Ä hniZambn {Kln¡m³ km[n¡pw. ]cnØnXnsb kw_Ôn¨ B[p\nI NÀ¨IfpsS ]ÝmXe¯n Cu hnjbw ]cymtem N\m hnjbam¡nb {it²bcmb Fgp¯pImcmWv k¿nZv lpssk³ \kzvdv. knbmhp±o³ kÀZmÀ, ]Àthkv a³kzqÀ, Fkv.U»yp.F. lpssk\n XpS§nbhÀ. ASnØm\ kao]\w
JpÀBsâ ho£W¯n `qanbn a\pjy³ bmZrOnIambn ]nd¶XÃ. hyàamb Dt±iyt¯msS ssZhw a\pjysc krjvSn¡pIbmWp sNbvXXv. a\pjy\pthണ്ടnbmWv `qansb krjvSn¨Xv. JpÀB\n Cu Bibw C§s\ hmbn¡mw: "Ah\mWv \n§Ä¡pthണ്ടn `qanbnepÅsXÃmw krjvSn¨p X¶Xv.... Rm\nXm `qanbn Hcp Jeo^xsb \ntbmKn¡m³ t]mhpIbmWv F¶v \nsâ \mY³ ae¡pItfmSv ]dª kµÀ`w' (hn.Jp. 2: 29, 30).

`qanbnse ssZh¯nsâ "Jeo^x' F¶ al¯mb ]ZhnbmWv a\pjy\pÅXv. {]IrXnbpambpÅ a\pjysâ GsXmcp Xcw CSs]Sepw Xsâ D¯chmZnXz hpambn s]mcp¯s¸Sp¶XmIWw. {]IrXnsb CuizcØm\¯v {]XnjvTn¡p Ibpw CSn, an¶Â, ag, kqcy³, N{µ³, Aán XpS§nb {]IrXnbnse hkvXp ¡sfbpw {]Xn`mk§sfbpw Bcm[n¡pIbpw sN¿p¶ {]mKvaX k¦Â]§sf Ckvemw Xncp¯p¶p. a\pjy\pthണ്ടn ssZhw Hcp¡nb Hcp kwhn[m\amWv {]IrXn F¶v JpÀB³ JWvVnXambn {]Jym]n¨p. AÃmlphnsâ GIXz¯n\p \nc¡m¯ Bib§sfsbÃmw Ckvemw XnckvIcn¡p¶p.
D¯chmZn¯ t_m[t¯msS {]hÀ¯n¡m³ ISs¸«h\mWv a\pjy³ F¶v Ckvemw kn²m´n¡p¶p. {]IrXn Ahsâ ssIbn e`n¨  Aam\¯v (kq£n¸p kz¯v) BsW¶pw Ckvemw kaÀYn¡p¶p. {]IrXnbn X¶njvSw {]hÀ¯n¡m³ a\pjy\v AhImianÃ. CXmWv {]IrXnbpw a\pjy\pw X½nepÅ _Ô s¯¡pdn¨ Ckvemansâ ASnØm\ kao]\w. A{Ia¯n\pw AanXhyb¯n\pw hne¡v
`qanbn a\pjy\v GÀs¸Sm³ Ignbp¶ FÃmhn[ A{Ia {]hÀ¯\§sfbpw Ckvemw hne¡p¶p. ssZh¯n ]¦ptNÀ¡pIhgn ssZht¯mSpw D]{Zhn¡pI hgn a\pjytcmSpw kuIcy§sf ZpÀhn\ntbmKw sN¿pI hgn {]IrXntbmSpw PohPme§tfmSpw {IqcXImWn¡pI hgn `qanbpsS aähIminItfmSpw kz´ ¯n\p lm\nIcamb {]hÀ¯\§Ä hgn Xt¶mSp Xs¶bpw a\pjy³ A{Iaw sN¿p¶p v. "a\pjysâ {]hÀ¯\ ^eambn Icbnepw ISenepw Ipg¸w {]Isam bncn¡p¶p' F¶mWv JpÀBsâ (30: 41) Xs¶ \nco£Ww. a\pjysâ CuZri A{Ia {]hr¯nIÄ ImcWw Ahsâ hwis¯ H¶S¦w ssZhw \in¸n¡m¯Xv Ah\pt\cs¯ \nÝbn¨ Ah[n ]qÀ¯oIcn¡m³ ssZhw CÑn¡p¶Xn\memsW¶pw JpÀB³ ]dbp¶p. "AÃmlp a\pjysc AhcpsS A{Iaw aqew ]nSnIqSpIbmbncps¶¦n `qapJ¯v bmsXmcp Pohnsbbpw Ah³ _m¡n sh¡pambncp¶nÃ. F¶m \nÀWnXamb Hch[nhsc AhÀ¡h³ kabw \ÂInbncn¡pIbmWv' (16/61).

"\n§fn BÀ A{Iaw sNbvXpthm Ahsc \mw KpcpXcamb in£ BkzZn ¸n¡p¶XmWv.' F¶v JpÀB³ (25/19) Xm¡oXp sN¿p¶p. Xncp\_n Acpfn: A{Iansb Iണ്ടn«pw BfpIÄ AbmfpsS ssI¡p ]nSn¡p¶nsæn AÃmlp Ahsc H¶S¦w in£nt¨¡mw' (A_qZmhqZv). Hcmtfm HcpIq«amfpItfm sNbvXpIq«p¶ A{Ia§fpsS Zpc´^ew AXpsN¿p¶hsc am{Xaà _m[n¡pI. {]kvXpX A\ymbs¯bpw A{Ias¯bpw {]Xntcm[n¡msX \nÊwKcmbn \n¶ hscbpw AXnsâ sISpXnIÄ _m[n¡psa¶v JpÀB³ HmÀas¸Sp¯p¶p: "\n§Ä ^nXv\sb IcpXnbncn¡pI. \n§fn A{Iaw {]hÀ¯n¨hsc am{Xambà AXv ]nSnIqSpI' (8/25).

A{Ia¯nsâ \m\mÀY§Ä JpÀB\pw {]hmNI Ncybpw hniZoIcn¡p¶pണ്ടv. I¸en\v ZzmcanSp¶h³ am{Xaà I¸en shÅw Ibdn NmhpI F¶v Xncp\_n apIfn D²cn¨ JpÀB³ kqà¯nsâ hniZoIcWambn Hcp]a \ÂInbn«pണ്ടv. Xe¡p shfnhnÃm¯h³ I¸en\v Zzmcapണ്ടm¡p¶Xp \nÊwK `mth\ t\m¡n \n¶h\pw I¸Â ap§pt¼mÄ ap§n¨mIpw. {]IrXnbpsS Imcy¯n\pw {]hmNIsâ Cu D]a _m[IamIp¶p. h\§Ä sh«n\in¸n¨pw aeIfpw Ip¶pIfpw CSn¨p \nc¸m¡nbpw `qanbpsS ta aÀZw s]cp¸n¡p¶ h³InS UmapIÄ ]WnXpw AcphnIfpw Pemib§fpw aen\am¡nbpw {]IrXnbmIp¶ I¸en\p Zzmcapണ്ടm¡p¶hcpw A¯cw A{Ia§sf XSbmsX amdn\n¡p¶hcpw Hcpt]mse AXnsâ Zpc´^e§Ä A\p`hn¡m³ hn[n¡s¸«hcmWv.

AanXamb D]t`mKXzcbpw AXncpIS¶ Bkànbpw BUw_c {]nbhpamWv ]cnØnXn¡p hn\miIcamb {]hÀ¯\§fn GÀs]Sm³ a\pjysc t{]cn¸n¡p¶ {][m\ LSI§fnsem¶v. C¯cw t{]cWIsfbpw Ckvemw IÀi\ambn \ntcm[n¡p¶p.
"\n§Ä Blmcw Ign¡pIbpw IpSn¡pIbpw sN¿pI. ]cn[n IhnbcpXv. \nÝbw, ]cn[n ewLn¡p¶hsc AÃmlp CjvSs¸Sp¶nÃ.' (7/31) "[qÀ¯Sn¡cpXv. [qÀ¯·mÀ sNIp¯m·mcpsS ktlmZc§fmWv. Xsâ \mYt\mSv IrXLv\X ImWn¡p¶h\mIp¶p sNIp¯m³' (17/26, 27). DÅXpsImണ്ടv Xr]vXns¸Sm³ IgnbmsX BÀ¯n]nSn¨ hn`hth«¡v a\pjy³ Cd§n¯ncn¡p¶XmWv ]cnØnXnt¡Â¡p¶ ]e ]cn¡pIÄ¡pw hgnacp¶m Ip¶sX¶p hyhkmb bpK¯nsâbpw sImtfmWnbenk¯nsâbpw Ncn{Xw Ak¶nKv[ambn ]Tn¸n¡p¶p. D]t`mK¯n anXXzhpw \ncmUw_c PohnXhpamWv {]IrXnbpsS k´penXXz ]me\¯n\v A`nImayw. \oXnbpw k´penXXzhpw
]cnØnXnsb kw_Ôn¨ Ckvemansâ ImgvN¸mSv cq]s¸Sp¯p¶Xn \nÀWm bI {]m[m\yapÅ cണ്ടv ]cnI¸\IfmWv \oXnbpw k´penXXzhpw. \oXn Ckvemansâ ASnØm\ `mhamWv. JpÀBsâ {][m\ {]tab§fnsem¶mWv AZv AYhm \oXn. AÃmlphnsâ \oXn\njvTsbbpw {]m]©nI \oXnsbbpw Ipdn¨v JpÀB³ \nc´cw DZvt_m[n¸n¡p¶p. ]qÀWmÀY¯n \oXnam·m cmbncn¡pI F¶v a\pjytcmSpw JpÀB³ Blzm\w sN¿p¶p.

kmaqlnI _Ô§fn am{Xaà Ckvemw a\pjycn \n¶p \oXn XmXv]cys¸ Sp¶Xv. kXyt¯mSpw \·tbmSpapÅ hyànbpsS {]Xn_²X sshbànI \oXn bmbn CkvemanI XXzNn´I·mÀ ImWp¶p. {]IrXntbmSpw CXc PohPme§ tfmSpapÅ hyànbpsS _Ôhpw CtX \oXnbpsS XmXv]cy§Ä¡\pkcn ¨mIWw \nÀWbn¡s¸Sp¶Xv. DW§p¶ sNSntbmSv a\pjy³ sNt¿ണ്ട  \oXn AXn\p shÅsamgn¨p sImSp¡pI F¶XmWv. ]£nItfmSv a\pjy³ sNt¿ണ്ട  \oXn Ah tNt¡dp¶ ac§Ä sh«napdn¡mXncn¡pI F¶Xpw.

k´penXXzw F¶ Ckvemansâ auenI ImgvN¸mSpw ]cnØnXnbpambpÅ a\pjy_Ôw \nÀWbn¡p¶Xn {][m\amWv. k´penX kao]\¯nsâ {]m[m\yw JpÀBsâ Cu A\pimk\¯n \n¶p {Kln¡mw. "ssI]ncSnbn _Ôn¡pItbm ]qÀWambn Ab¨nSpItbm AcpXv. A§s\ sNbvXm \o \nµy\pw ZpxJnX\pambn¯ocpw'(17/29). ssI ]ncSnbn _Ôn¡pI F¶Xv ep_v [nsâ Be¦mcnI {]tbmKamWv. ssI Ab¨nSp¶Xv ap³]n³ t\m¡msXbpÅ sNehgn¡ensâbpw.  cണ്ടns\bpw \ncpÕmls¸Sp¯p¶ Ckvemw a[ya \ne]mSv kzoIcn¡m³ Bhiys¸Sp¶p. ssZ\wZn\ PohnX hyhlmc§Ä¡p am{Xw _m[IambXà Cu XXzw. {]XypX PohnX kao]\s¯ apgph³ Cu XXzw kzm[o\nt¡ണ്ടXpണ്ടv. cm{Xn apgph³ {]mÀYn¡pw, FÃmZnhkhpw t\ms¼Sp¡pw, kv{Xo kwkÀKw Dt]£n¡pw F¶n§s\ {]hmNI ]Xv\n BCix(d) bpsS km¶n[y¯n {]XnÚ sNbvX aq¶p t]sc {]hmNI³ hnfn¸n¡pIbpw Ahsc AhcpsS {]XnÚbnÂ\n¶v ]n´ncn¸n¡pIbpw sNbvX kw`hw {]kn²amWv. kzicoc¯n\pw aäpÅhÀ¡papÅ AhImi§Ä ]qÀ¯oIcn¡m³ Hmtcmcp¯cpw _m[yØcmsW¶v \_n kÀhkwK ]cnXymKn bmbn¡gnª Hcp injys\ D]tZin¨p. Ckvemw hn`mh\ sN¿p¶ k´penXXz kao]\s¯bmWv Cu kw`h§Ä kqNn¸n¡p¶Xv. FÃmImcy§Ä¡pw _m[IamWv Cu kao]\w. {]IrXnbnse hn`h§Ä H«pw D]tbmKn¡cpsX¶v Ckvemw iTn¡p¶nÃ. F¶Ã, a\pjysâ D]tbmK¯n\p thണ്ടnbmWv AÃmlp Ah krjvSn¨ncn¡p¶Xv F¶mWv Ckvemansâ ImgvN¸mSv. AtXkabw, hn`h§Ä btYjvSw D]tbmKn¨v Xpe¡m³ Ah³ A\phZn¡s¸Sp¶panÃ. Bhiy¯n IhnªpÅ DXv]mZ\hpw D]t`mKhpamWv {]IrXnbpsS XmfwsXän¡p ¶sX¶Xv hyàamWv. D]tbmKn¨p hens¨dnbp¶ ]Snªmd³ k{¼Zmb¯n\pw Ckvemansâ ImgvNbn \oXoIcWanÃ.

`qanbn Al¦mct¯msS \S¡cpsX¶pw JpÀB³ A\pimkn¡p¶p. Úm\n hcy\mb epJvam³ aI\p \ÂInb D]tZiw JpÀB³ D²cn¡p¶p: "..... `qanbn \o Al¦mct¯msS \S¡cpXv. Zpc`nam\nsbbpw s]m§¨¡mcs\bpw AÃmlp CjvSs¸Sp¶nÃ. \S¯¯n anXXzw ]men¡pI. i_vZw ]Xps¡bm¡pI. Gähpw shdp¸pfhm¡p¶ i_vZw IgpXbptSXmWv' (31/18, 19).
`qanbn hn\bm\znXÀ¡mWv kam[m\w. Al¦mc¯nsâ s\SpwtKm]pc§Ä ]WnXmWv a\pjy³ {]IrXnbpsS XmfwsXän¡p¶Xv. ssZhnIZrjvSm´amb {]IrXn, ]hn{Xamb `qan
{]]©s¯ apgph³ AÃmlphnsâ al¯mb ZrjvSm´ambpw a\pjy\v Bhmk hyhØbmbn AÃmlp\nÝbn¨n«pÅ `qan ]hn{Xamb hmkØe ambpw Ckvemw ]Tn]n¡p¶p. ]cnØnXntbmSpÅ kao]\¯n Cu cണ്ടv ]cnI¸\IÄ¡pw khntijamb {]m[m\yapണ്ടv. AÃmlphnsâ ZrjvSm´amb {]IrXn BZchÀln¡p¶p. AXv A{Ian¨p IosgmXpt¡ണ്ട  i{XphÃ. ss{IkvXh ZÀi\¯nteXp t]mse Ckveman `qan "]m]w' sNbvX a\pjysâ "]X\'Øm\aÃ. `qanbnte¡v XncsªSp¡s¸« {]tXyI krjvSnbmWv a\pjy³. `qan ]cnip²amWv. "`qan apgph³ hnizmknIÄ¡v ]ÅnbmWv.' F¶v Xncp\_n Acpfnbn«pണ്ടv. a®p]tbmKn¨v \akvImc¯n\p AwKip²n hcp¯mw. a\pjy³ a®n \n¶p krjvSn¡s¸«h\pw a®nte¡v aS§p¶h\pamsW¶p JpÀB³.
"`qansb \n§Äs¡mcp hncn¸pw ]ÀhX§sf XqWpIfpam¡n¯¶ntÃ?' (JpÀB³ 78:6,7) F¶ tNmZyw Nn´sb AKm[ambn kzm[o\n¡m³ ]cym]vX amWv. "\n§Ä¡h³ `qansb CW¡apÅXm¡n¯¶p. \n§Ä AXnsâ CS§ fn k©cn¡pIbpw AXnse Blmc§Ä `£n¡pIbpw sN¿pI' (JpÀB³ 67/15) F¶pw a\pjyt\mSv JpÀB³ Bhiys¸Sp¶p.

hnip² JpÀB\nepS\ofw {]IrXn Hcp kPoh km¶n[yamWv. ac§fpw sNSnIfpw aeIfpw Ip¶pIfpw acp`qanIfpw acp¸¨bpw PohPme§fpw Irjnbpw kap{Zhpw AcphnIfpw Imäpw ]cmKWhpw JpÀB\n \nc´cw ]cmaÀin¡s¸ Sp¶p. a\pjys\ {]IrXnbpambn CW¡pIbpw Ahsâ {i²sb {]IrXnbpsS AÛpX§fnte¡pw clky§fnte¡pw BIÀjn¡pIbpamWv JpÀB³ sN¿p¶Xv. {]IrXnbpambn s]mcp¯s¸Sp¶ PohnX{IaamWv a\pjy³ cq]s¸Spt¯ണ്ടsX¶p Ckvemw XmXv]cys¸Sp¶p. a\pjy\p lm\nIcambsXÃmw Ckvemw hne¡n. \ÃXv A\phZn¡pIbpw sNbvXp. `qansb lcnXm`am¡pI
`qanbn Irjn sN¿m\pw ^ehr£§fpw XW ac§fpw h¨p]nSn¸n¡m\pw {]hmNI³ AWnIsf D]tZin¨p. A\kv(d) F¶ {]hmNI injy³ \_nbn \n¶v D²cn¡p¶p: "Hcp apkvenw sNSn \SpItbm Irjnbnd¡pItbm sN¿pIbpw ]£nbpw arKhpw AXn \n¶p `£n¡pIbpw sNbvXm AXv Ahs\mcp kzZJ(]pWyIcamb Zm\w) Bbn amdmXncn¡pIbnÃ.' hnftbm ^e§tfm tamjWw t]mbmepw kzZJbmbn ]cnKWn¡s¸Spsa¶p asämcp \nthZ\¯nepണ്ടv.
Xncp\_n ]dªp: "BÀs¡¦nepw kpKÔs¨Sn In«nbm Hgnhm¡cpXv. AXv `mcanÃm¯Xpw kpKÔapÅXpamWtÃm' (ss_lJn).
ap¸Xn¸cw sNSnIsfbpw AhbpsS Huj[KpW§sfbpw kw_Ôn¨p lZokpIfn ]cmaÀiapണ്ടv. ]e sNSnIfpw \in¸n¡p¶Xns\ {]hmNI³ hne¡pIbpw sNbvXp. bp²¯n t]mepw i{Xp¡fpsS tXm«§fpw hr£§fpw \in¸n¡p¶Xv Ckvemw hne¡n F¶Xv {it²bamWv. l{kXv A_q_IvÀ kzn±oJv(d) Xsâ `S·mÀ¡p \ÂInb {]ikvXamb \nÀtZi§fn ac§Ä apdn¡cpsX¶ \nÀtZihpw DÄs¸Sp¯nbncp¶p.
hniz\mKcnIXIfpsS CuänÃambn bqtdm]y³ Ncn{Xw ]cnNbs¸Sp¯p¶ GX³ kn\v, Adnhv ssZh§fpsS kzImcy kt¦X§fn \n¶v Is«Sp¡s¸« \n[nbmbncp¶p. Adnhp tamjvSn¨p a\pjyÀ¡p \ÂIn F¶ Ipä¯n\v t{]manXyqkv _Ô\Ø\m¡s¸SpIbpw sNbvXp. Adnhnsâ kqà§Ä AhÀWcpsS ImXn ]Xnªv Aip²amhp¶Xns\Xnsc Pm{KXtbmsS Imh \n¡pIbmbncp¶p C´ybnse Bcy³amÀ. {Ko¡v, C´y³ kwkv¡mc§fn \n¶v hyXykvXambn Adnhns\ P\Iobam¡p¶Xn\p thണ്ടnbmWv Ckvemw \nesImണ്ടXv. temI \mKcnIXIsf ¡pdn¨pÅ XmcXay ]T\w H¶maXmbn ASbmfs¸Sp¯p¶ kXyw CXmWv. Adnhnsâ P\IobhXv¡cW¯n\p ap³ssI FSp¯Xv JpÀB³ BWv.
JpÀB³ Ad_v P\Xbn Dണ്ടm¡nb amäamWv Cu AhImi hmZ¯n\v sXfnhv. apl½Zv \_nbpsS {]hmNIXz e_v[nbpsSbpw {]t_m[\ hnPb¯nsâbpw ap¼v Ad_nIfpsS kwkvImcs¯ \nÀWbn¨ncp¶Xv {]mIrXamb tKm{XmNmc§fpw IpSn¸IIfpambncp¶p. \à BXnYy acymZbpw Ih\ ssh`hhpw DÅhcmbncp¶p AhÀ F¶sXmgn¨p \nÀ¯nbm Ckveman\p ap¼s¯ Ad_n kwkvImcw Imcyambn H¶pw Ahtijn¸n¨n«nÃ. \ne\nÂ]n\pÅ kachpw aZyw, kv{Xo, bp²w F¶o {Xb§fpamWv Ad_v càs¯ Xnf¸n¨Xv. {]XnImcw, [ocX, t`mKw, HuZmcyw F¶nhbv¡¸pdw Nn´m]camb Fs´¦nepw DWÀhpIÄ AhÀ {]ISn¸n¨Xmbn sXfnbp¶nÃ.
{]hmNIsâ BKa\¯n\p sXm«p ap¼pÅ Ad_n PohnX¯nsâ Gähpw anI¨ CuSpshbv]v apAÃJIÄ F¶dnbs¸Sp¶ k]vX Imhy§fmWv. Cwdp ssJkv, Xzd^, Awdv_v\p IpÂkqw, A³Xzdx, kpsslÀ, e_oZv, lmcnYv F¶nhcpsS ]pIÄs]ä IhnXIfmWv "apAÃJIÄ'. tKm{Xm`nam\¯nsâ hàm¡fmbncp¶ Cu IhnIÄ ]mSnbX{Xbpw aZys¯bpw t{]as¯bpw {]XnImcs¯bpw acp`qanbnse PohnX Ima\sbbpw Ipdn¨mWv. XXzNn´bpsStbm imkv{Xmt\zjW¯nsâtbm IncW§Ä AhÀ t{]mÕmln¸n¨ncp¶nà F¶ÀYw. {]Wbn\n Dss\kxbpambn klib\w km[n¡msX h¶t¸mÄ Ipfn¡Shn \n¶v AhfpsSbpw tXmgnamcpsSbpw hkv{Xw tamjvSn¨v Ahsc \áIfmbn Xs¶ kao]n¡m³ \nÀ_Ôn¨v H«Is¯ Adp¯v Ahsc kÂIcn¨ tijw {]Wbn\nbpsS H«I¸pd¯v khmcn sN¿p¶XmWv Cwdp ssJknsâ apAÃJxbpsS CXnhr¯w. aZyw, ssaYp\w, bp²w F¶o aq¶p PohnX kpJ§sf Ipdn¨mWp Xzd^x ]mSp¶Xv. Ckveman\p ap¼s¯ Ad_n a\knsâ s]mXp kz`mhw {Kln¡m³ C{Xbpw aXn. cm{Xn¡p tijw ]IÂ
Hcp ]t£, A¡mes¯ Atd_ysb s]mXnª Ccp«ns\ {]XoIhXvIcn ¡p¶XmWv Cwdp ssJknsâ Cu hcnIÄ. ""hebven³ I auPn _lvcn AÀJm kpZqelp Ae¿ _n A³hmC lpaqan en b_vXeo. (kap{Z¯nse XncameIÄ IWs¡ cm{Xn AXnsâ hncnIÄ Fsâ ta Xmgv¯nbn«p; \nch[n ZpxJ§fm Fs¶ ]co£n¡p¶Xn\p thണ്ടn).
AÚm\¯nsâ Cu cm{XnIfn \n¶v Úm\¯nsâ ]Iente¡v Ad_nIsf hnfn¨pWÀ¯nb \mZambncp¶p "CJvdAv' (hmbn¡pI). Ccp«n \n¶p shfn¨¯n te¡pÅ Ad_nIfpsS {]bmWs¯ JpÀB³ ASbmfs¸Sp¯p¶p.
"hmbn¡pI' F¶ BÚbpsS A{]Xntcm[yamb Icp¯v Ad_v P\Xsb F{]Imcw amänsbSp¯p F¶v Ncn{Xw tcJs¸Sp¯p¶pണ്ടv. Adnhp t\S Hmtcm apkvenansâbpw \nÀ_Ô _m[yXbmsW¶pw ssN\bn t]msb¦nepw Adnhp t\SpI F¶pw A\pbmbnIsf ]Tn¸n¨ {]hmNI³ bp²¯ShpImsc hn«b¡p ¶Xn\v sh¨ D]m[n Xsâ A\pNc·mcn ]¯pt]Às¡¦nepw Fgp¯pw hmb\bpw ]Tn¸n¨p sImSp¡pI F¶Xmbncp¶p. A£c hnZysb P\Iobam ¡pIbmbncp¶p {]hmNI³ CXneqsS (_ZÀ bp²¯n _Ô\Øcmb i{Xp¡Ä¡v {]hmNI³ \nÝbn¨ tamN\{Zhyw ]¯v apkvenwIÄ¡v Fgp¯pw hmb\bpw ]Tn¸n¨p sImSp¡pI F¶Xmbncp¶p).
lndm Kplbnse [ym\¯n \n¶v {]hmNIs\ DWÀ¯nb "CJvdAv' F¶ Aicocn ]pXnsbmcp \mKcnIXbpsS ASn¡Ãmbn¯oÀ¶p. H«I¯nsâ aq¡pIbÀ ]nSn¨v, ""In^m \_vIn an³ ZnIvdm l_o_n³ h a³knen'' (\n¡q, {]mW t{]bknbpsS kvacWbn AhfpsS `h\mhinjvS¯n\Sp¯p \n¶p \ap¡v Icbmw) F¶p ]mSn \S¶ P\X, ""ssZhta, Adnhp hÀ[n¸n¨p XtcWta'' (dºn knZv\o CÂa³) F¶p {]mÀYn¨p XpS§n. AhcpsS `mh\Ifn \n¶v {]Wbhpw elcnbpw IpXncbpsS N´hpw tKm{X¸Ibpw A{]Xy£ambn. `qanbpsS Npäfhns\ Ipdn¨pw \£{X§Ä X½nepÅ AIes¯ Ipdn¨pambn AhcpsS BtemN\. AhcpsS `mj, AXphsc kwkvImc¯nsâ `mjbmbncp¶ {Ko¡ns\ £Wt\cw sImണ്ടv \njv{]`am¡n. tdmansâbpw t]ÀjybpsSbpw ss[jWnI {]`mhw Ad_nIÄ¡p ap¼n Icn´ncn I¯n.
{In.h. Bdmw \qämണ്ടn\pw ]{´ണ്ടmw \qämണ്ടn\panSbn Ad_nIfpsS Ncn{X¯n F´p kw`hn¨p F¶Xv hnkvabmhlamWv. {]KÛ imkv{XNcn{XImc³ tPmÀPv kmÀ«sâ hm¡pIÄ {i²n¡pI:
""Gähpw auenIhpw Gähpw Bib k¼¶hpamb {KÙ§Ä cNn¡s¸«Xv Ad_nbnemWv. F«mw \qämണ്ടnsâ ]IpXn apX ]Xns\m¶mw \qämണ്ടnsâ A´yw hsc Ad_nbmbncp¶p a\pjy hwi¯nsâ imkv{X`mj. B ImeL«¯n Gähpw ]pXnb hnÚm\w IcØam¡Wsa¶pÅhÀ Ad_n ]Tnt¡ണ്ടnbncp¶p. Pm_ndp_v\p l¿m³, AÂInµn, AÂJmcnkvan, AÂ^ÀKm\n, AÂdmkn, km_nXp_v\p JpÀdx, AÂ_¯m\n, lpss\\p_v\p CkvlmJv, AÂ^mdm_n, C_vdmloap_v\p knam³, A akvDuZn, Xz_cn, A_pÂh^m, Aen¿p_v\p Aºmkv, A_p Jmknw, C_v\p A PÊmÀ, A _ndq\n, C_v\p ko\m, C_v\p bq\pkv, A JÀJn, C_v\p sslkw, Aen¿n_v\p Cuk, AÂKÊmen, A kÀJmen, DaÀ J¿mw þ ]mÝmXy temI¯v Xpeycmb kaImenIcnÃm¯ GXm\pw alm{]Xn`Isf am{Xw ChnsS HmÀ¡mw. Cu ]«nI F{X thWsa¦nepw \o«m\pw {]bmkanÃ. a[yImeL«w imkv{X cwK¯v hÔyambncp¶p F¶v \n§tfmSmsc¦nepw ]dªm Cu BfpIfpsS t]cpIÄ am{Xw AhtcmSv ]dbpI. 750 \pw 1100 \panSbv¡pÅ {lkzImeL«¯nemWv ChscÃmw Pohn¨Xv.'' H«I¸pd¯v ]pkvXI§Ä
CkvemanI \mKcnIX Ad_nIfnepണ്ടm¡nb ]cnhÀ¯\¯nsâ kzmZdnbm³ Aºmko Jeo^x aAvaq³ _KvZmZn Øm]n¨ "ss_Xp lnIvax' (Úm\ `h\w) F¶ imkv{X ]T\ tI{µs¯¡pdn¨p a\Ênem¡nbm aXnbmhpw. hm\ \nco£W tI{µhpw {KÙmebhpw tNÀ¶ Cu ]T\ tI{µ¯nsâ \nÀanXn¡v A¶s¯ cണ്ടp e£w ZnÀlamWv (C¶s¯ Ggp anÃy³ tUmfdn\p Xpeyw) Jeo^x \o¡nsh¨Xv. hnhn[ `mjm ]WvVnX·mÀ ss_Xp lnIvaxbn \ntbmKn¡s¸«p. FÃm hnÚm\ imJIfnepapÅ {KÙ§Ä (\qsdm«I§Ä¡v Npa¡m\pÅXv) AhnsS tiJcn¨ncp¶p. ]lvehn, kwkvIrXw, {Ko¡v, ImÂZnb³, kpdnbm\n `mjIfnepÅ IrXnIÄ Ad_nbnte¡v Cu tI{µ¯nÂsh¨p hnhÀ ¯\w sN¿s¸«p.
tUm.KpkvXmhv eo t_m¬ FgpXp¶p: "In those days when books and libraries meant nothing to Europeans, Many Islamic lands had books and libraries in plenty. Indeed, in Baghdad's 'House of Wisdom' there were four million Volumes; and in cairo's Sultanic Library one million; and in the library of syrian Tripoly three million Volumes ; While in Spain alone under Muslim rule there was an annual publication between 70 and 80 thousand Volumes"
(Dr.Gustave Le Bon, History of Islamic and Arab Civilization, Vol III, P329, k¿nZv apPvX_m aqkhnemcn D²cn¨Xv. A¯uloZv (Cw¥ojv tPWÂ) hmfyw 17 e¡w 4).
""]pkvXI§fpw {KÙmeb§fpw bqtdm]yÀ¡v H¶paÃmXncp¶ Cu Zn\§fn  ]e CkvemanI \mSpIfnepw Ah [mcmfambpണ്ടmbncp¶p. _mKvZmZnse "Úm\ `h\'¯n \mep Zie£w {KÙ§Ä D mbncp¶p. ssItdmhnse kp¯msâ {KÙmeb¯n Hcp Zie£w; kndnb³ {Snt]mfnbnse {KÙmeb¯n aq¶p Zie£w; apkvenw `cWIme¯v kvs]bn\n am{Xw hÀjw {]Xn Fgp]Xn\m bnc¯n\pw F¬]Xn\mbnc¯n\pw CSbv¡v {KÙ§Ä {]kn²s¸Sp¯nbn«pണ്ടv.''
tKmf imkv{Xw apX sshZyimkv{Xw hsc FÃm sshÚm\nI imJIfpw CkvemanI \mKcnIXbn hfÀ¶p ]´en¨p. {lkzamb Hcp ImeL«¯n\p Ån sshÚm\nI cwK¯v A`qX]qÀhamb hfÀ¨ ssIhcn¡m³ apkvenwI Ä¡p km[n¨p.
tNmZyanXmWv : Iman\namcpsS amZIXzw hÀWn¡m³ {]mks¸mcp¯apÅ hm¡pIÄ tXSnbhÀ kwJyIfpsS s]mcpÄ NnIbm³ CSbmbsX§s\? hmfpIÄ Nph¸n¨p tKm{X alnasb hnfw_cw sNbvXhÀ ("shfp¯ hmfpIfpambn t]mbn Nph¶ hmfpIfpambn aS§p¶hÀ R§Ä' F¶p Ihn) AcntÌm«nen\pw bpIvfnUn\pw Xncp¯pIÄ \nÀtZin¡m³ am{Xw {]m]vXcmbsX§s\? shfn¨¯nsâ {]fbw
Ccp]¯naq¶p kwhÕc¡mew apl½Zv \_n Dcphn« hm¡pIfmWv a{´iànbmse¶ t]mse Atd_y³ D]`qJÞs¯ amän¡fªXv. \_nbpsS akvXnjvIw kzbw s\bvsXSp¯ hm¡pIfmbncp¶nà Ah. A¶s¯ Atd_y³ ]cnØnXnbn aX]ctam hnZym`ymk]ctam Bb ]ÝmXesam¶panÃm¯ Hcp hyàn¡v km[n¡p¶Xn Ihnª ZuXyamWp {]hmNI³ \nÀhln¨Xv. shfn]mSnsâ shfn¨amWv lndbn {]Xy£s¸«sX¶p hyàw. BImi¯p \n¶p hoW an¶Â ]nWÀ t]mse {]hmNI³ Atd_ysb {]Imiabam¡n. tXmakv ImÀsseensâ AXn at\mlcamb hm¡pIÄ  ChnsS ]IÀ¯s«;
""Ad_v tZi¯n\v XaÊn \n¶v {]Imi¯nte¡pÅ ]ndhnbmbnc¶p AXv. AXv aptJ\bmWv Atd_y¡v BZyw Poh³ ssIh¶Xv. temImcw`w apX AXnsâ acp`qanIfn Bcmepw {i²n¡s¸SmsX Aeªp \S¶ ]mhw]nSn¨ AP]meI·mÀ. AhÀ¡v hnizkn¡m\mhp¶ hN\hpambn Hcp \mbI {]hmNI³ AhÀ¡nSbnte¡v Ab¡s¸«p. t\m¡q, {i²n¡s¸SmXncp¶Xv temI{i² t\Sp¶p, sNdpXv temIt¯mfw hepXmhp¶p. AXn\p tijw Hcp \qämണ്ടn\pÅn Atd_y Hcä¯v {Km\U apX atäbä¯v UÂln hsc, [ocXbnepw {]uVnbnepw {]Xn`bpsS {]Imi¯nepw temI¯nsâ hensbmcp `mK¯v Xnf§n \n¡p¶p. hnizmkw alnXw, Poh ZmbIw. hnizkn¡p¶tXmsS Hcp tZi¯nsâ Ncn{Xw ]pjv¡eamhp¶p. Bßobu¶Xyhpw alXzhpw t\Sp¶p. Cu Ad_nIÄ, apl½Zv F¶ a\pjy³, B Hcp \qämണ്ടv. AKWyhpw Ccpണ്ടXpamb Hcp temI¯v Xos¸mcn hoWXp t]mse Bbncp¶ntà AXv? ]t£, t\m¡q; s]m«ns¯dn¡p¶ shSnacp¶mbn UÂln apX {Km\U hsc AXv BImiw aps« I¯nÖzen¡p¶p. Rm³ ]dªp: almßmhv F¶pw BImi¯p \n¶p hcp¶ an¶Â]nWÀ t]mse Bbncp¶p. aäpÅhÀ At±l¯n\mbn Im¯p\n¶p. CÔ\w Xosb F¶ t]mse AhÀ¡pw Pzmebmhm³''.
apl½Zv \_nbneqsS an¶Â¸nWdmbn acp`qanbn Cd§nb JpÀB³ F´ntes¡ÃmamWv AhnSps¯ \nhmknIfpsS I®p Xpd¸n¨Xv? JpÀB\nse ]cÈXw kqà§fn \n¶v Nne amXrIIÄ am{Xw aXn CXn\pÅ D¯cw e`n¡m³. JpÀB³ Ad_nIfpsS {i²sb H«I¯nte¡pw BImit¯¡pw ]ÀhX§fnte ¡pw `qanbpsS InS¸nte¡pw BIÀjn¨p.

kaXehpw acp`qanbpw h\§fpw ]ÀhX§fpw kap{Z§fpw AcphnIfpw Imäpw `qanbpsS \nc¸pw kuµcyhpsaÃmw JpÀB³ aptJ\ apkvenwIÄ¡v ]cnNbambn¯oÀ¶p. tKmfimkv{Xs¯t¸mse `qanimkv{Xhpw apkvenw [njWm imenIsf BIÀjn¡m³ CsXmcp ImcWambn. CkvemanI \mKcnIXbn tKmfimkv{Xw ssIhcn¨Xn\p kam\amb {]m[m\yw `qanimkv{X¯n\pw e`n¨p. Ad_v \mtSmSn PohnX¯nsâ cà¯n AenªptNÀ¶ bm{Xbpw JpÀBsâ hnjb§fnsem¶mWv. `qanimkv{X¯nsâ hfÀ¨bn k©mc¯n\p henb ]¦pണ്ടv. {Kojvahpw tla´hpw bm{X¡v F{]ImcamWv A\pIqeambn¯ocp¶Xv F¶Xv JpÀB³ Hcp Nn´mhnjbambn FSp¯nSp¶pണ്ടv.
""JpssdinIÄ kpc£nXcmhp¶Xn\v, {Kojva Imes¯bpw ssiXyImes¯bpw bm{X AhÀ¡v CW¡apÅXmhp¶Xn\v Cu `h\¯nsâ A[n]s\ AhÀ Bcm[n¡s«. Ah\mWv AhÀ¡v hni¸n\v `£Whpw t]Snbn \n¶v \nÀ`bXzhpw \ÂInbXv'' (hn.Jp. A[ymbw 106). bm{X t\cs¯ Xs¶ Ad_v PohnX¯nsâ `mKambncp¶p. JpÀB³ AXn\v IqSpX t{]cW \ÂIn. "]dbpI. \n§Ä `qanbneqsS k©cn¡pI. F¶n«v \ntj[nIfpsS ]cyhkm\w F§s\bmbncp¶psh¶v ImWpI''(6:11). ""ChÀ `qanbneqsS bm{XsN¿p¶ntÃ? F¦n Nn´n¨p{Kln¡m³ ]änb lrZb§tfm tI«dnbm³ DXIp¶ ImXpItfm AhÀ¡pണ്ടmIpambncp¶p. I®pIsfbà AÔX _m[n¡p¶Xv, s\©pIfnse lrZbs¯bmW'' (22 : 46).
Imcy§Ä {Kln¡p¶Xn\v thണ്ടnbpÅ bm{X apkvenw [njWmPohnX¯nsâ `mKambn¯oÀ¶p. `qanimkv{X]camb \nch[n AdnhpIfnte¡mWv Cu bm{XIÄ hgnXpd¶Xv.
aäp \neIfnepw bm{X Ad_vþapkvenw PohnX¯nsâ `mKambncp¶p. CkvemanI {]t_m[\mÀYw apkvenw ]WvVnX·mÀ ZoÀL bm{XIÄ sNbvXp. [Àabp²¯n\p thണ്ട­nbpÅ bm{XIfpw apkvenw PohnXNcybpsS `mKambncp¶p. lÖv FÃm hÀjhpw  BhÀ¯n¡p¶ almbm{Xbmbn hfÀ¶p. temI¯nsâ hnhn[ `mK§fn \n¶v XoÀ°mSIÀ a¡sb e£yam¡n ]pds¸«p. Cu bm{XbpsS kz`mhw JpÀB³ hnhcn¡p¶pണ്ടv:
""P\§Ä¡nSbn \o lÖns\ hnfw_cs¸Sp¯pI. \S¶pw hnZqcamb kIe ae¼mXIfneqsSbpw saenª H«I¸pdt¯dnbpw AhÀ \nsâbSp¯v h¶psImÅpw'' (22: 27).
`qanimkv{X]camb AdnhpIfn IqSnbpambncp¶p Cu bm{XIÄ. Atd_y³ D]`qJWvUw, CuPn]vXv, samtdmt¡m, C´y, Cäen, kvs]bn³, saskms¸mt«anb, {Kokv XpS§n hensbmcp `qhn`mKw Ckvemante¡v BIÀjn¡s¸«p Ignªncp ¶Xn\m `qanimkv{X]camb FÃm khntijXIfpw ]T\hnt[bam¡pI apkvenwIÄ¡v Ffp¸ambncp¶p. `cW]chpw ssk\nIhpw hym]mc]chpw {]t_m[\]chpamb Bhiy§Ä¡v hnkvXrXamb CkvemanI km{amPy¯neqsS \nc´cw bm{X sNt¿­ണ്ട kmlNcyw AhÀ¡pണ്ടmbn. lÖv FÃmhn[ sshhn[y§fpsSbpw kwKathfIfmbncp¶p. {]mtZinIamb [mcmfw AdnhpIÄ ]¦psh¡s¸Sm³ lÖv Ahkcsamcp¡n.

CXc imkv{XimJIfnse¶t]mse, `qanimkv{X kw_Ôambpw aäp `mjIfnse {KÙ§Ä tXSn¸nSn¡m\pw Ad_nbnte¡v samgnamän kzmwioIcn¡m\pw Ad_v ]WvVnX·mÀ DÕmln¨p. {Koknsâbpw C´ybpsSbpw sshÚm\nI ss]XrIs¯ AhÀ k\njv¡Àjw ]T\hnt[bam¡n.
tSmfanbpsS `qanimkv{X ]T\§Ä apkvenwIÄ ]Tn¨p. AcntÌm«nensâ IrXnIfnse `qanimkv{X kw_Ôamb \nco£W§fpw AhÀ DÄs¡mണ്ടp. {Koknsâ `qKWnXhpw t]ÀjybpsS hnhcWmßI `qanimkv{Xhpw AhÀ kzmb¯am¡n.
Aºmko Jeo^x aAvaq³ `qanimkv{X]T\¯n {]tXyI XmÂ]cyw {]ISn¸n¨p. hnkvXrXamb temI`q]Sw X¿mdm¡p¶Xn\pthണ്ടn Fgp]Xv ]WvVnX·msc At±lw \ntbmKn¨p. "aAvaq\o `q]Sw' (AÊqd¯p aAvaq\n¿x) F¶ t]cnemWv CXdnbs¸Sp¶Xv. F¶m CXnsâ tIm¸n Ct¸mÄ e`yaÃ. tSmfanbpsS `q]Ss¯¡mÄ IrXyambncp¶p AsX¶v AXv Iണ്ട A_p lk³ A akvDuZn tcJs¸Sp¯nbn«pണ്ടv. apl½Zv _v\p aqk Jmcnkvan Cu `q]Sw X¿mdm¡p¶Xn ]¦mfnbmbncp¶p. ""dkvap aAvaqÀ an\ _nemZv'' F¶t]cn Hcp `qanimkv{X {KÙhpw Ct±lw cNn¨p. P\hmkapÅ {]tZi§sf Ipdn¨ hnhcWambncp¶p AXv. tSmfanbpsS `q]Shpw hnhcWhpw Jmcnkvan sa¨s¸Sp¯pIbpw sNbvXp. Xm³ ]cmaÀin¨ Øe§fpsSsbÃmw `qanimkv{X]camb Øm\hpw A£mwi þtcJmwi klnXw At±lw tcJs¸Sp¯n.

AÂIn³Znbpw AlaZv kdmIvinbpw `qanimkv{XIrXnIÄ cNn¨hcmWv. A_q A_vZnà AÂ_IvXm\n, A_p Aºmkv AÂ^ÀKm\n, C_v\pbq\pkv apXembhcpsS tPymXnimkv{X ]T\§fnepw `qanimkv{X]camb {]Xn]mZ\§Ä Dണ്ടmbncp¶p.
lnPvd aq¶v, \mev, A©v \qämണ്ടpIfn `qanimkv{X]T\w IqSpX hnImkw {]m]n¨p. temI¯nsâ hnhn[ `mK§fn t\cn«p \S¯nb \nco£W§fpw ap³KmanIÄ \S¯nb ]T\§fpsS ASnØm\¯n \S¶ KthjW§fpamWv Cu hnImk¯n\v Ifsamcp¡nbXv. `qanimkv{X¯nsâ At\zjW N{Ihmfs¯ kz´w \nebn KWyambn hnIkn¸n¡m\pw apkvenw imkv{XImc·mÀ¡v Ignªp. apkvenw `qanimkv{XImc·mcpw k©mcnIfpw \nch[n {KÙ§Ä cNn¨p.

tKmf cq]hXvIcW ]T\¯n\v Ad_nbn CÂap sslAx F¶mWv ]dbpI. CÂap¶pPqw, CÂapÂ^eIv F¶o t]cpIfnepw JtKmf]T\w apkvenw temI¯v Adnbs¸Sp¶p. kabw, Zn¡v Chsb¡pdn¨p ]Tn¸n¡p¶ tKmfimkv{XimJbmWv CÂap aoJm¯v.
Ckvemansâ BhnÀ`mh¯n\p ap¼v Ad_v temI¯v Cu imkv{XimJIsfm¶pw DZbw sNbvXncp¶nÃ. FÃm ]ucmWnI P\hn`mK§sfbpw t]mse \£{X§fpw CXc tKmf§fpw AhÀ¡v Bcm[yhkvXp¡fmbncp¶p. F¦nepw ZnKv \nÀWb ¯n\v \£{X¯nsâ DZbØm\§sf AhÀ Ahew_n¨p. acp`qanbnse bm{XI Ä¡v CXv Gsd D]Imc{]Zambncp¶p. ImcWw cm{Xnbnembncp¶p Ad_nIfpsS hym]mcbm{XIÄ A[nIhpw. ImemhØbnse amä§fpw \£{X§sf \nco£n¨v AhÀ a\Ênem¡n. CXn\¸pdw tKmf§sfbpw AhbpsS Ne\§sfbpw Ipdn¨v IrXyamb hnhcw Ckveman\p ap¼v Ad_nIÄ¡p­ണ്ടmbncp¶Xmbn AdnhnÃ.
Ckvemansâ BKa\w Ad_nIÄ¡nSbn A\nXc km[mcWamb sshÚm\nI hn¹h¯n\p \nan¯ambn¯oÀ¶p. JtKmf hnÚm\ob¯nsâ hnImk¯n Cu hn¹h¯nsâ AeIÄ Gsd ZriyamWv. apkvenw temI¯v tKmfimkv{X]T\w kPohamIm³ cണ്ടv {][m\ ImcW§Ä Nqണ്ടn¡mWn¡m³ Ignbpw.
H¶v: tKmfimkv{X ]T\¯n\v JpÀB³ \ÂIp¶ ap´nb ]cnKW\bpw Blzm\hpw. cണ്ടv: {]mÀY\IfpsS kabw, "Jn_ve'bpsS Øm\w, lÖnsâ aoJm¯v XpS§nbh \nÀWbn¡p¶Xn\v tPymXnÀKWnX ]T\w Bhiyambn ¯oÀ¶Xv. JpÀBsâ t{]cW
`qanbpw hm\temIhpw AÃmlphnsâ krjvSnbmWv. AÃmlphnsâ CÑ{]Imcw {]]©w krjvSn¡s¸SpIbmbncp¶p. CXmWv {]]©s¯ kw_Ôn¨ JpÀBsâ H¶mas¯ XXzw. krjvSn ambbÃ; bmYmÀYyamWv F¶pw JpÀB³ kn²m´n¡p¶p. ""bmYmÀYyambn BImi§sfbpw `qansbbpw krjvSn¨Xv Ah\mIp¶p'' (hn.Jp. 6/72).
krjvSn¡s¸« {]]©w ]qÀWambpw AÃmlphnsâ CwKnX¯n\p hnt[bambmWv Nen¡p¶Xv. krjvSnIfpsS \nb´mhpw ]cn]meI\pw AÃmlphmIp¶p. CXpw JpÀB³ hyàam¡p¶pണ്ടv: "BdpZn\§fnembn BImi`qanIsf krjvSn¨ AÃmlpXs¶bmIp¶p \n§fpsS \mY³. A\´cw Ah³ "AÀin' A[n]\mbn. Ah³ cmhpsImണ്ടv ]Ien\p adbnSp¶p. [rXnbn AXv (]IÂ) AXns\ (cm{Xnsb) At\zjn¡pIbmWv. kqcy\pw N{µ\pw \£{X§fpw Ahsâ BÚ¡p hnt[bamWv. AdnbpI, krjvSn¸pw \nb{´Whpw Ah\pÅXmIp¶p. temIc£nXmhmb AÃmlp AXy[nIw A\p{KlapSbh\s{X'' (hn.Jp. 7/54).
{]]©w krjvSnbpw bmYmÀYyhpamWv. {]]©s¯ \nb{´n¨psImണ്ടncn¡p¶Xv AÃmlphmWv. F¶o Imcy§Ä Øm]n¡pI hgn JpÀB³ {]m]©nI {]Xn`mk§sf CuizcØm\¯v \nÀ¯p¶ {]mIrX ZuÀ_ey¯n \n¶p a\pjya\ÊpIsf tamNn¸n¡pIbmWv sNbvXXv. AtXmsS {]]©w a\pjy\p ap¼n Hcp Xpd¶ ]pkvXIambn amdn.
hm\temI hnkvab§fnte¡v JpÀB³ a\pjysâ {i²£Wn¨p. ""cm{Xnsbbpw ]Iens\bpw kqcys\bpw N{µs\bpw krjvSn¨Xv Ah\mWv. Ahtbmtcm¶pw AXnsâ hgnbn Ncn¨psImണ്ടncn¡p¶p'' (hn.Jp. 21/33). ""Gähpw kao]Øamb BImis¯ Ah³ Zo]§Ä sImണ്ടv Ae¦cn¡pIbpw Ahsb kwc£n¡pIbpw sNbvXp. kÀhÚ\pw AP¿\pambhsâ hyhØbmIp¶p AXv'' (41/12).
AÛpXIcamb {]m]©nI kwhn[m\s¯¡pdn¨pw AhbpsS BXy´nI bmYmÀYys¯¡pdn¨pw Nn´n¡m\pw ]Tn¡m\pw JpÀB³ \nc´cw t{]mÕml\w \ÂIp¶p. ""ZrjvSntKmNcamb kvXw`§Ä CÃmsX BImis¯ DbÀ¯nbh\mWv AÃmlp. ]ns¶ Ah³ AÀinsâ A[n]\mbn. kqcy\pw N{µ\pw Ah\p hnt[bamWv. Hmtcm¶pw \nÝnX Ah[n hsc Nen¨psImണ്ടncn¡pw. Imcy§Ä Ah³ \nb{´n¡p¶p. \n§Ä \n§fpsS \mYs\ Iണ്ടpap«p¶Xn ZrVhnizmk apÅhcmIp¶Xn\pthണ്ടn Ah³ ZrjvSm´§Ä hniZam¡p¶p. `qansb hnimeam ¡pIbpw AXn aeIfpw ]pgIfpw Dണ്ടm¡pIbpw sNbvXXv Ah\mWv. Hmtcm C\w ]g¯nepw Ah³ CWIfmbn Cc« C\§sf Dണ്ടm¡n. ]Iens\ Ah³ cm{XnsImണ്ടv s]mXnbp¶p. AXn Nn´n¡p¶hÀ¡v ZrjvSm´apണ്ടv'' (hn.Jp. 13/2,3).

BImi§fnse AÛpX§Ä t\m¡n¡mWpIbpw `qanbnse AXnib§Ä A\p`hn¨dnbpIbpw sN¿p¶ a\pjy³ Nn´n¨pXpS§p¶p. [njW D·njn¯m hp¶tXmsS hnÚm\¯nsâ IhmS§Ä Ahsâ ap¼n aeÀs¡ Xpd¡s¸SpIbpw sN¿p¶p.
""BImi`qanIfpsS krjvSn¸nepw cm¸IepIÄ amdnamdn hcp¶Xnepw _p²nam·mÀ¡v [mcmfw ZrjvSm´§fpണ്ടv. AhÀ \n¶pw Ccp¶pw InS¶pw AÃmlpsh kvacn¡pIbpw BImi`qanIfpsS krjvSn¸ns\ Ipdn¨p Nn´n¡pIbpw sN¿p¶p'' (3/190).
CXmWv tKmfimkv{X]T\¯n\p JpÀB³ \ÂInb t{]cWIfpsS amXrI. \nch[n hmIy§fnembn, [mcmfw Øe§fn JpÀB³ a\pjysâ Nn´mtijnsb C{]Imcw X«nbpWÀ¯p¶pണ്ടv. tKmfimkv{Xhpw apkvenwIfpsS ssZ\wZn\ PohnXhpw
apkvenwIÄ¡v apkvenwIÄ F¶ \nebn Xs¶ tKmfimkv{Xw Hcp ssZ\w Zn\ Bhiyambn¯oÀ¶XmWv apkvenw \mKcnIXbn {]kvXpX sshÚm\nI taJe k¼pjvSamIm\pണ്ടmb cണ്ടmas¯ ImcWw. JtKmf]T\¯n\p apkvenwIÄ¡p t{]cWbmbn¯oÀ¶ aX]camb {]mtbmKnImhiy§fn {][m\w A©p t\c§fnse \nkvImc¯nsâ kabw \nÀWbn¡pI F¶Xmbncp¶p. kzp_vlv, fplÀ, AkzÀ, aKvcn_v, CimAv F¶o {]mÀY\m kab§Ä IW¡m¡p¶Xn\v kqcysâ D¶Xn (altitude)bpw Ne\{Iahpw Adntbണ്ടXpണ്ടmbncp¶p. CXn\mbn hnhn[ KWnXimkv{X coXnIÄ ]e apkvenw kaql§fpw BhnjvIcn ¡pIbpണ്ടmbn. \nkvImchpambn¯s¶ _Ôs¸«XmWv Jn_vex \nÀWbw. akvPnZpIÄ ]Wnbpt¼mÄ CXv {]tXyIw Bhiyambn¯ocp¶p. `h\§Ä ]Wnbpt¼mgpw apkvenwIÄ Jn_vex t\m¡pI ]XnhmWv. ZnKv\nÀWbimkv{Xw A\nhmcyam¡n¯oÀ¡p¶XmWnXv. tPymXnÀKWnXw aX]T\¯nsâ `mKambn ¯ocp¶Xv C§s\bmWv. hnhn[ {]tZi§fn \n¶v lÖn\v ]pds¸Sp¶hÀ¡v Clvdman {]thint¡ണ്ട  "aoJmXv' Adntb Xv A\nhmcyamWv. ChnsSbpw tKmf hnÚm\obw klmb¯ns\¯p¶p. Ch¡p]pdsa {]t_m[\ bm{XIfpw apkvenwIÄ¡v tKmfimkv{Xw ]Tnt¡ണ്ടXv A\nhmcyam¡n¯oÀ¯p.

aXIemeb§fnepw ]ÅnZÀkpIfnepw lnkm_v (KWnXw) CÂapÂ^eIv (tKmfimkv{Xw) F¶nh {][m\ ]mTyhnjbambn¯oÀ¶Xv ta kqNn¸n¨ aX]camb BhiyIXIfpsS ]qÀ¯oIcWmÀYamWv. JpÀBsâ t{]cWbpw ssZ\wZn\mhiy§fpsS k½ÀZhpw H¯ph¶t¸mÄ apkvenw \mKcnIXbn tKmfimkv{Xw ]pjvIeambn. lnPvdxsb ASnØm\am¡nbpÅ Nm{µ]©mwKamWv apkvenwIÄ kzoIcn¨Xv. lÖv, t\m¼v F¶nh Nm{µ]©mwK a\pkcn¨mbncn¡Ww F¶Xv aXimk\bmWv. ImemhØbnse amä§Ä Cu A\pjvTm\§Ä¡v hcp¯p¶ Ffp¸hpw {]bmkhpw `qanbpsS GXp tImWn hkn¡p¶ hnizmkn¡pw Xpey\nebn A\p`hn¡m³ CXv Ahkcw \ÂIp¶p. F¶m ImÀjnImhiy§Ä¡v apkvenwIÄ B{ibn¨Xv kuc]©mwKamWv. sImÀtZmhbnse apkvenw tKmfimkv{XÚÀ cq]s¸Sp¯nb kuc]©mwKw {]Npc{]Nmcw t\Snbncp¶p. hnÚm\tiJcWhpw hyhØm]nX ]T\hpw
F«mw iXI¯nsâ cണ്ടmw ]mXnbn Aºmko `cWm[nImcn a³kzqdnsâ Ime¯v _mKvZmZnemWv hn]peamb hnÚm\tiJcWhpw hyhØm]nX ]T\hpw kamcw`n¨Xv. bh\þ]mÀknþkndnb³þ C´y³ t{kmXÊpIfn \n¶pÅ imkv {XÚm\w _mKvZmZnte¡v HgpIns¡mണ്ടncp¶p. {Ko¡v, ]lvehn, kwkvIrXw  `mjIfnse {KÙ§Ä Ad_nbnte¡v samgnamäw sN¿s¸«p. \nco£W ]T\§Ä¡mbn hm\\nco£W tI{µ§Ä kÀ¡mÀ sNehnepw kzImcy Xe¯nepw \nÀanXambn. Hcp \qämണ്ടpsImണ്ടv _KvZmZv temI¯nse Gähpw henb tKmfimkv{X ]T\tI{µambn amdn. AkwJyw tKmfimkv{X ]WvVnX·mÀ _mKvZmZn Xmakam¡n. ]Xns\m¶v, ]{´ണ്ടv iXI§fn apkvenw kvs]bn\pw hniz{]kn² tKmfimkv{X]T\tI{µambn ]cnekn¨p.
tSmfanbpsS hnJymX{KÙamb saKmse knâmIvknUv amXsaänI¡v lnPvd aq¶mw \qämണ്ടn Xs¶ H¶ne[nIw Ad_n ]cn`mjIÄ Dണ്ടmbn«pണ്ടv. Chbn Kp³bm\p_v\p CkvlmJv, km_nXv_v\p JpÀdx F¶nhcpsS ]cn`mjIÄ ]pIÄs]ähbmWv. tSmfanbpsS aäp IrXnIfmb Sm_pse am\psekv, sslt]msXkkv ¹m\ämdw, ]vfn\nkvt^dnbw, sSävdm_n_vtemkv F¶nhbpw CtX Ime¯v Ad_nbnte¡v samgnamäw sN¿s¸«p. F¶m tSmfanbpsS IW¡pIfpw ]«nIIfpw AtX]Sn kzoIcn¡m³ apkvenw tKmfimkv{XÚÀ Iq«m¡nbnÃ. hyàamb ]T\¯neqsS IqSpX IrXyamb \nKa\§fn F¯nt¨cp¶Xn\pÅ ZoÀLamb KthjW§fn AhÀ GÀs¸«p. Nne tKmfimkv{X {]iv\§Ä \nÀ²mcWw sN¿p¶Xn\v \m¸Xp hÀjw hsc \oണ്ട ]T\§Ä \S¯nb KthjIcpണ്ടv. _mKvZmZv, kaÀJ´v, \nim]qÀ, sImÀtZmh, ZakvIkv, d¿v F¶nhnS§Ä tI{µoIcn¨mWv Cu KthjW]T\§Ä A[nIhpw \S¶Xv. Cu ]T\§Ä hgn tSmfanbpsS AXphsc AwKoIcn¡s¸« ]e \nKa\§fpw Xncp¯m³ \mkzndp±o³ Xzqkn, JpXp_p±o³ iodmkn XpS§nb apkvenw tKmfimkv{XImc·mÀ¡v km[n¨p. ]pXnb \£{X¸«nIIÄ AhÀ Xbmdm¡n. tSmfanbpsS \nKa\§sf JWvVn¡p¶ \n_Ô§fpw Ad_nbn cNn¡s¸«p. ]Xnaq¶v, ]Xn\mev \qämണ്ടpIfn apkvenw temI¯v tKmfimkv{X]T\w AXyp¶X  L«¯nse¯n. Ad_v tKmfimkv{X {KÙ§Ä emän³, ln{_p `mjIfnte¡v samgnamäw sN¿s¸«Xv C¡me¯mWv. tKmfimkv{Xhpambn _Ôs¸« FÃm D]imJIfnepw \nch[n {KÙ§Ä C¡meambt¸mtg¡pw Ad_nbn hncNnXambn¡gnªncp¶p. ^ÀKm\nbpsS InXm_p^o ldIXnÊamhn¿ h PhmanD CÂan¶pPqw F¶ _rlZv{KÙw hnJymXamWv. A_vZpdlvam\nÊq^n cNn¨ kzphdpÂIhmIn_v F¶ kNn{X {KÙw ]n¡me tPymXnimkv{X]T\§sf Gsd klmbn¨n«pണ്ടv. apkvenwIÄ¡p]pdsa Ad_v blqZcpw ss{IkvXhcpw JtKmf hnÚm\ob t]mjW¯n\v KWyamb kw`mh\IÄ AÀ¸n¨p.

tX\o¨, Nne´n, sImXpIv, Xhf, Ddp¼v, \m¡menIÄ, CgP´p¡Ä, ]dhIÄ XpS§nb hnhn[ P´p kaql§sf¡pdn¨p JpÀB³ ]cmaÀin¡p¶p. PohnIfpsS kwLt_m[w, PohnX{Iaw, AXnibn¸n¡p¶ Xc¯nepÅ AhbpsS {]hÀ ¯\§Ä, ]mepÂ]mZ\w XpS§nb Imcy§fnte¡mWv JpÀB³ a\pjysâ {i²bmIÀjn¡p¶Xv. amXrIbv¡p GXm\pw kqà§Ä ChnsS D²cn¡p¶p.
hnhn[ Xcw Pohn hÀK§fpsS AkvXnXzw JpÀB³ C§s\ shfns¸Sp¯p¶p : ""`qanbnse GXp Pohnbpw Ccp NndIpIfn ]d¡p¶ ]£nbpw \n§sft¸mepÅ kaql§fmIp¶p'' (6: 38).
tX\o¨bpsS PohnXcoXnbnte¡v shfn¨w hoip¶ hN\w: ""\nsâ \mY³ tX\o¨IÄ¡v t_m[\w \ÂIn. aeIfnepw ac§fnepw a\pjy³ sI«nbpbÀ¯p ¶hbnepw IqSpണ്ടm¡pI. F¶n«v FÃmXcw ^e§fn \n¶pw Blcn¡pI. \nsâ \mY³ kuIcys¸Sp¯n¯¶ k©mc amÀK§fn {]thin¡pI. AhbpsS DZc§fn \n¶p hnhn[ hÀW§fnepÅ ]m\obw ]pd¯phcp¶p. AXn a\pjyÀ¡v tcmKia\apണ്ടv . Nn´n¡p¶hÀ¡v XoÀ¨bmbpw AXn ZrjvSm´apണ്ട(16:68, 69)
Nne´nIÄ s\¿p¶ heIfnte¡v JpÀB³ {i²bmIÀjn¡p¶p:""hoSpIfn Gähpw ZpÀ_ew Nne´nIfptSXp Xs¶'' (29:41). ""hnlmbÊn ]d¡p¶ ]dh Ifnte¡v AhÀ t\m¡p¶ntÃ? AÃmlphÃmsX Ahsb ]nSn¨p\nÀ¯p¶nÃ'' (16 : 79). C§s\bpÅ ]cÈXw kqà§Ä P´pimkv{X]T\¯nte¡p hgnXpd¶p. P´pimkv{X]T\w apkvenw \mKcnIXbnÂ
apkvenwIfpsS P´pimkv{X]T\w AXnsâ hnimeamb AÀY¯n CkvemanI \mKcnIXbpsS apgph³ hi§sfbpw DÄs¡mÅp¶p. \nbaaoamwk, kmlnXyw, Ie, sshZyhnÚm\w F¶nh AXnsâ ]cn[nbn hcp¶p. ImenIsf hfÀ¯n Pohn¨ncp¶ Ad_nIÄ¡v t\cs¯Xs¶ arK§fpsS kz`mhhpw PohnXcoXnIfpw kp]cnNnXambncp¶p. Atd_ybntebpw t]Àjybntebpw D¯cm{^n¡bntebpw \mtSmSnIfmb apkvenwIÄ¡v arK§sf¡pdn¨v IqSpX Adnhpt\Sm³ {]bmkap­ണ്ടmbncp¶nÃ. \nXyPohnX¯nsâ `mKambn arK§sf AhÀ¡v CW¡n FSpt¡ ണ്ടXpണ്ടmbncp¶p. H«Iw, IpXnc F¶o arK§sf¡pdn¨v Ad_nIÄ¡v \à Úm\apണ്ടmbncp¶p. Cu ]mc¼cyhpw {Ko¡v, t]Àjy³ \mKcnIXIfnÂ\n¶p kzmwioIcn¨ Adnhpw apkvenwIfpsS P´p hnÚm\ob¯n\v apX ¡q«mbn ¯oÀ¶p. AcntÌm«nensâ "lntÌmdnb B\nameobw' F¶IrXn blvb C_v\p lXvco¡v Ad_nbnte¡v XÀPa sNbvXp. Xntbm\nkntämknsâ P´pimkv{X IrXnbpw knÀdp JmenJm¯v F¶t]cn Ad_nbnte¡v samgnamäw sN¿s¸SpIbpണ്ടmbn. {Ko¡v IrXnIfn \n¶v hyXykvXambn Ct´mþt]Àjy³ \mKcnIXIfn arK§Ä IYm]m{X§fmbn AhXcn¡s¸«ncp¶p. kwkvIrX¯n \n¶v ]lvehnbnte¡pw ]n¶oSv Ad_nbnte¡pw samgnamdnh¶ Ieoex hZnw\ CXn\pZmlcWamWv. C´ybntem t]Àjybntem P´p¡fpsS icocLS\sb¡pdn¨v ]T\w \S¶ncp¶nÃ.

apkvenw temI¯v BZyIme P´pimkv{X]T\§Ä hnjbam¡nbncp¶Xv H«Is¯bpw IpXncsbbpamWv. A_q\fvÀ C_v\pkpssaÂ, A AkvaCu, C_v\p Ad_n, A_q Dss_Zv C_v\pkemw, A_qlmXnw knPnkvXm\n, Pm_nÀ C_v\p lbq F¶nhÀ P´pimkv{XhnjbIambn FgpXnbn«pണ്ടv. apAvXknen ssZhimkv{XImc·mcmb _nivÀ C_v\p apAvXanÀ, A_q CkvlmJv \Åmw F¶nhÀ P´pimkv{X¯n {]tXyIw XmXv]cyw ImWn¨ncp¶p. F¶m P´pimkv{Xw ssIImcyw sNbvXncp¶ Gähpw henb apAvXknen {KÙImc³ {]ikvX kmlnXyImc\mb Pmlnfv BWv. At±l¯nsâ "InXm_p lbhm³' BWv apkvenw temIs¯ Gähpw {]ikvX P´pimkv{X {KÙw. Ad_nþ t]Àjy³þ{Ko¡v t{kmXÊpIfn \n¶pÅ apgph³ hnhc§fpw AXn kamlcn¨n«pണ്ടv. AcntÌm«nensâ \nco£W§Ä Pmlnfv Xsâ IrXnbn \ncq]W hnt[bam¡n. 350 arK§sf¡pdn¨v At±lw ]T\w \S¯pIbpw AhbpsS kz`mh KpW§Ä, BIrXn F¶nhsb¡pdn¨v \mev C\§fnembn hniZoIcn¡pIbpw sNbvXn«pണ്ടv. arK a\ximkv{X¯nepw At±lw AXoh XÂ]c\mbncp¶p. ]mÝmXy P´pimkv{XImc·mÀ Pmlnfn\v BNmcy]Zhn \ÂInbn«pണ്ടv.

AÂIn³Zn, ^mdm_n F¶nhcpw P´pimkv{Xw ssIImcyw sNbvXhcmWv. C_v\p JpssXz_bpsS lp¿p\ AIv_mssd³ F¶ IrXn P´pimkv{X¯n\v {]m[m\yw \ÂInbn«pണ്ടv. CJvhm\pÊ^bpsS ZoÀLamb Hcp cnkme arK§sf¡pdn¨mWv. D¬abpsS ka{KN{I¯nsâ `mKambmWv AhÀ arK§sf ImWp¶Xv. C_v\pko\bpsS InXm_pÈn^mbn arK§fpsS icocimkv{Xhpw a\ximkv{Xhpw khnkvXcw {]Xn]mZn¨n«pണ്ടv. C_v\pdpivZpw C_v\p_mPbpw CÆnjbIambn FgpXnbhcmWv. AcntÌm«nensâ P´pimkv{Xkn²m´§Ä¡v C_v\p dpivZv hymJym\w cNn¨p. lnPvdx Ggmw iXI¯nsâ HSphnepw F«mw iXI¯nsâ Bcw`¯nepambn P´pimkv{XhnÚm\tImi§Ä cNn¡s¸«p.

Iamep±o³ ZaocnbpsS lbm¯p lbhm³ A Ip_vd bmWv F«mw iXI¯nepണ്ടmb Gähpw {][m\s¸« apkvenw P´pimkv{X{KÙw. CXn\v t]Àjybnepw XpÀ¡nbnepw ]cn`mjIfp mbn. apkvenwIÄ¡nSbn Cu ]pkvXIw hfsc thKw {]Nmcw t\Sn. JpÀB\n ]cmaÀin¨ arK§sf¡pdn¨v IqSpXednbp¶Xn\v apkvenw ]WvVnX·mÀ Cu {KÙs¯ Ahew_n¨ncp¶p. CuPn]vjy³ ]WvVnX\mb Pemep±o³ kpbqXzn Cu {KÙ¯n\v ]Zycq]¯nepÅ kw{Klw Xbmdm¡n. ]n¶oSnXn\v emän³ ]cn`mjbpണ്ടmbn. CkvemanItemIs¯ Gähpw ka{Kamb P´pimkv{X{KÙambncp¶p ZancnbptSXv.
apKÄ N{IhÀ¯n PlmwKoÀ Xsâ XpkvsI PlmwKodn/PlmwKoÀ \mabn arK§sf¡pdn¨v hfsc {i²tbmsS hnhcn¡p¶pണ്ടv. apkvenw IYmImc·mÀ arK§sfbpw ]£nIsfbpw X§fpsS BibmhnjvImc¯n\v h³tXmXn am[yaam¡nbn«pണ്ടv. Bßob At\zjW¯nsâ amÀK¯nepw CtX am[yaw Xs¶ Ahcp]tbmKn¡pIbpണ്ടmbn. ^nÀZuknbpsS jmlv\ma, Hu^nbpsS PhmanD lnImbm¯v F¶o {KÙ§fn ]£nIfpw arK§fpw IYm]m{X§fmWv. kq^n kmlnXy¯nepw arK§Ä¡v {]tXyIw Øm\apണ്ടv. k\mCbpsS lZoJ¯p lJoJ, A¯zmdnsâ a³XnJpssXzÀ, dqanbpsS akv\hn, PmanbpsS _lmcnkvXm³ apXembh DZmlcWw.

th«bmS apX acp¶p \nÀamWw hscbpÅ Imcy§fn arK§Ä¡v {]mtbmKnI {]m[m\yw IÂ]n¡s¸«ncp¶psh¶p ImWmw. arK§sf NnInÕn¡p¶Xn\pw apkvenw sshZy·mÀ {]tXyIw ]T\w \S¯nbncp¶p.
{]IrXn k´pe\¯n kky§sfbpw [mXp¡sfbpw t]mse Hc\nhmcy LSIamWv P´ptemIhpw F¶v apkvenwIÄ a\Ênem¡nbncp¶p. arK§sf ¡pdn¨ ]T\¯n\v Ahsb {]mtbmKnImhiy¯n\v D]tbmKs]Sp¯pI F¶ e£yw am{Xambncp¶nà apkvenwIÄ I¸n¨ncp¶Xv. AÃmlpsh Adnbm\pw X§fpsSbpw arK§fpsSbpw \neIÄ XmcXays¸Sp¯m\pw CXneqsS AhÀ {ian¨p. a\pjy³
a\pjyicocs¯¡pdn¨ ]T\hpw CkvemanI \mKcnIXbn Pohimkv{X¯nsâ `mKambn hfcpIbpണ്ടmbn. ""a\pjys\ krjvSn¨Xv Gähpw kpµcamb cq]¯n emsW¶v JpÀB³ {]kvXmhn¡p¶pണ്ടv.""a®n \n¶p krjvSn¡s¸«h\pw a®nte¡v aS§p¶h\pamWv a\pjy³'' F¶mWv JpÀBsâ asämcp {]kvXmh\. a\pjyicoc¯nsâ ASnØm\ \nÀamW hkvXp Ifna®msW¶pw JpÀB³ kqNn¸n¡p¶p. a\pjy {`qW hfÀ¨sb kw_Ôn¨p hfsc hyàhpw IrXyhpamb hnhcWamWv JpÀB³ \ÂIp¶Xv.

a\pjy icocLS\ {]tXyIw ]T\ hnt[bam¡nbhcmWv dmknbpw C_v\pko\bpw. a\pjymhbh§sf¡pdn¨p Jkvho\n ]T\w \S¯n. a\pjyicoc¯nse Nw{IaW hyhØ, I®nsâ {]hÀ¯\ coXn F¶nhbpw apkvenw Pohimkv{XImc·mÀ {]tXyIw ]Tn¡pIbpണ്ടmbn. C_v\p\^okp±naivJn ({In.h. 1208þ1289), Iamep±o³ AÂ^mcnkn (acWw {In.h. 1320), Aen¿p_v\p Cukm A¯z_o_v A _KvZmZn (a. {In. 1000) F¶nhÀ a\pjymhbh§sf kw_Ôn¨p {KÙcN\ \S¯nbhcmWv.
a\pjysâ Xet¨mdnsâbpw lrZb¯nsâbpw {]hÀ¯\§sf¡pdn¨v hkvXp\njvTamb hnhcWw \ÂInb ]WvVnX·mcmWv C_v\p\^okpw kIcn¿m Jkvho\nbpw. AcntÌm«n apt¶m«psh¨ Bib§fn \n¶p XoÀ¯pw hyXykvXamb \nco£W§fmWv ChÀ \ÂIp¶Xv. a\pjysâ apgph³ Ahbh§fpw Xet¨mdpw lrZbhpambn _Ôn¡s¸«ncn¡p¶Xmbn AhÀ a\Ênem¡n. izmktImiw, Bamibw, IpSepIÄ, IcÄ, hr¡ XpS§nb Ahbh§fpsS {]hÀ¯\§fpw apkvenw imkv{XÚÀ hniZoIcn¨p.

JpÀB\pw sshZyimkv{Xhpw

BtcmKy]cn]me\hpw NnInÕbpw CkvemanI hnizmk{]amW¯nsâ Xs¶ `m KambmWv hfÀ¶ph¶Xv. BtcmKy¯n\v lm\nIcamb `£y]ZmÀY§fpw ]m\ob§fpw \ntcm[n¨ JpÀB³ ""\ÃXpw A\phZ\obambXpta Blcn¡mhq' F¶v A\pimkn¡pIbpw sNbvXp. ipNnXzw, hymbmaw, hn{iaw, D]hmkw, anXt`mP\w, BtcmKy]qÀWamb ioe§Ä F¶nh Dd¸phcp¯p¶XmWv Ckveman \njvIÀjn¡s¸«n«pÅ Bcm[\Ifpw A\pjvTm\§fpw. \ntXy\ A©pt\c§fnepÅ {]mÀY\ Bßmhn\p im´nbpw a\Ên\v \thmt·jhpw icoc¯n\v HmPÊpw \ÂIp¶p. {hXm\pjvTm\w Bßobamb D¡Àj t¯msSm¸w icoc¯nse B´cnImhbh§fpsS ip²oIcWhpw Dd¸phcp¯p¶p. am\knImtcmKyhpw imcocnImtcmKyhpw \ne\nÀ¯p¶Xn [ym\¯n\pw {]mÀY\¡papÅ ]¦v kphnZnXamWv.
BtcmKy]cn]me\¯nsâ Bßobamb km[yXIsfÃmw \ne\nÂs¡¯s¶ acp¶p]tbmKn¨pÅ NnInÕbpsS {]m[m\yhpw {]hmNI³ Xsâ A\pNc·msc A`ykn¸n¡pIbpണ്ടmbn. ""Hmtcm tcmK¯n\pw Huj[apണ്ടv'' (enIpÃn ZmD³ ZhmD³) F¶ Xncp\_nbpsS {]kvXmh\ {]kn²amWv. Ad_nIÄ¡nSbn {]Nmc¯nepണ്ടmbncp¶ AÔhnizmkm[njvTnXamb NnInÕmapdIsfsbÃmw \ncpÕmls¸Sp¯nb {]hmNI³ tcmKw hcpt¼mÄ NnInÕn¡pI F¶ ioew A\pbmbnIfn hfÀ¯nsbSp¯p. sshZy]T\¯n\pw AhnSp¶v t{]mÕml\w \ÂIn. {]hmNIsshZyw
BtcmKy]cn]me\s¯bpw tcmKNnInÕsbbpw kw_Ôn¡p¶ {]hmNI hN\§Ä {]tXyIw kamlcn¡s¸«n«pണ്ടv. _pJmcn, apkvenw, A_qZmhqZv, XnÀapZn XpS§nb {]kn²cmb lZokv kamlÀ¯m¡Ä "InXm_pXznºv' (sshZy]pkvXIw) F¶ ioÀjIw \ÂIn C¯cw lZokpIÄ t{ImUoIcn¨ncn¡p¶p. "Xznºp¶_n' ({]hmNIsshZyw) F¶t]cnemWv \_nbpsS NnInÕmcoXn Adnbs¸Sp¶Xv. {]hmNIsshZyhpambn _Ôs¸« \m\qtdmfw lZokpIÄ Dണ്ടv. A_q_I dp_v\pkm\n (ln. 4þmw \qämണ്ടv) A_q\psFw (ln. 5þmw \qämണ്ടv), C_v\pÂJ¿nw A Pukn (ln. 8þmw \qämണ്ടv), A_q A_vZnÃmln±l_n (ln. 8þmw \qämണ്ടv), A_vZpdlvam\pÊpbqXzn (ln. 9þmw \qämണ്ടv) F¶nhÀ Xznºp¶_n kw_Ôamb lZokpIfn {]tXyI ]T\w \S¯nb {]apJcmWv. Cw¥ojv DÄs]sSbpÅ \nch[n hntZi `mjIfnte¡v Xznºp¶_n lZokv kamlmc§Ä samgnamäw sN¿s¸«n«pണ്ടv.
Hcn¡Â Xncp\_ntbmSv Hcp injy³ tNmZn¨p: "acp¶v sImണ്ട hà D]tbmKhp aptണ്ടm?' AhnSp¶v ]dªp: "AsX.'
"ssZhZmktc, Huj[ap]tbmKn¡pI, acp¶v krjvSn¡msX AÃmlp tcmKs¯ krjvSn¨n«nÃ.' F¶v Xncp\_n Acpfn. tcmKw ssZhtIm]aà F¶p {]hmNI³ A\pbmbnIsf t_m[ys¸Sp¯nbncp¶p. ssZhZqX·mÀ¡pw tcmK§Ä ]nSn s]«n«psണ്ട¶v \_n HmÀan¸n¨p.
UKvfmkv KpYvcn (Douglas Guthrie) Xsâ "F lnÌdn Hm^v saUnkn\nÂ' A`n{]mbs¸Sp¶Xv apl½Zv \_nbpsS hN\§fmWv sshZytaJebn h³]ptcmKXn ssIhcn¡m³ a[yImeL«¯nse apkvenw `njKzc·mÀ¡v t{]cWbmbXv F¶mWv.
tcmKnIsf kµÀin¡pIbpw AhÀ¡pthണ്ടn {]mÀYn¡pIbpwsN¿pI F¶Xv Hcp hyàn¡v asämcp hyàntbmSpÅ Bdp IS¸mSpIfn H¶mbmWv \_n F®nbncn¡p¶Xv. tcmKnIsf kµÀin¡pt¼mÄ icnbmb sshtZym]tZiw tXSm\pw \_n tcmKnItfmSv Bhiys¸SpI ]Xnhmbncp¶p. Hcn¡Â \_n kAvZp_v\p A_ohJmkzns\ kµÀin¨p. lrt{ZmK_m[nX\mbn InS¸nembncp¶p At±lw. \_n s\©p XShnbt¸mÄ kAZn\p AÂ]w Bizmkw tXm¶n. F¦nepw \_n kAZnt\mSv ]dªp:""kq£n¡Ww. lrt{ZmKamWv. lmcnkp_v\p IÂZsb ImWn¡pI. At±lw \à sshZy\mWv.''

tcmKnIsf {i²tbmsS ]cnNcn¡Wsa¶v \_n sshZy·msc D]tZin¨p. Huj[ {]tbmK¯n sshZKv[yapÅhÀ am{Xta NnInÕn¡mhq F¶v \_n D]tZin¨ncp¶p.
\_n ]e tcmK§Ä¡pw NnInÕ \nÀtZin¡pIbpണ്ടmbn«pണ്ടv. tX³, kp¶mam¡n, Imc¡, Heohv, Icn©ocIw, Deph, Idnth¸v, C©n, Ip¦paw, s]cn©ocIw, Iäphmg XpS§nbh \_n \nÀtZin¨ Huj[§fn s]Sp¶p.

t¹Kv _m[n¨ Øet¯¡v t]mIcpsX¶pw t¹Kv _m[n¨ Øe¯p \n¶v aäp \mSpIfnte¡v HmSnt¸mIcpsX¶papÅ {]hmNIsâ D]tZiw kmw{IanI tcmK§Äs¡XnscbpÅ imkv{Xobamb ap³IcpXens\ kqNn¸n¡p¶p.
tcmK§sf¡pdn¨v Ad_nIÄ sh¨p]peÀ¯nbncp¶ AÔhnizmk§sf {]hmNI³ Xncp¯n. ]pXnsbmcp sshZyimkv{X hn¹h¯n\v CXphgn {]hmNI³ XpS¡w Ipdn¨p.

tdmkm¸q. Fs´mcp N´amWXn\v. Xe]pIªv \odpIbmsW¦nÂt]mepw hnSÀ¶p\n¡p¶ ]q H¶v {i²n¡mXncn¡m³ IgnbnÃ. AXnsâ kpKÔhpw kuµcyhpw \½psS I®neqsS, BßmhneqsS IS¶pt]mIpw. AX\p`hn¡m³ A¸w kuµcyt_m[ta Bhiyapffq. CXcPohnIfn \n¶v a\pjysc thdn«p \nÀ¯p¶ Hcp khntijX IqSnbmWtÃm kuµcyt_m[w. F¶m Cu ]pjv] ¯n\v Nne t]mcmbvaIfpണ്ടv.
H¶v: ss\anjnIX. \izcamWv ]pjv]w. AsX{X kpµcnbpw tamln\nbpamsW ¦nepw AÂ]mbpÊmWv. cണ്ടv: hnip²n`wKw. anI¨ kuµcy¯nsâ \nd¨mÀ¯p ambn hnSÀ¶p\n¡p¶ ]pjv]¯nsâ ImWvUw, thcpIÄ Nnet¸mÄ Ip¸bnem bncn¡pw. Npcp§nb]£w amen\y§fmbncn¡pw AXnsâ Blmcw. BkzmZ\ ¯n\p a§te¸n¡p¶ Zp:JkXyamWnXv.
aq¶v: aqeytimjWw. tdmkm]qhn\v \dpaWapണ്ടv. kuµcyapണ്ടv. ]t£, aqeyanÃ. kzÀW¯nsâ sNdnsbmcwiw aqeyw t]mepw AXn\nÃtÃm. kpKÔw ]c¯p¶ kpµc]pjv]w kzÀW \nÀanXambncps¶¦n kuµcyhpw aqeyhpapണ്ടmIpam bncp¶p. ]t£, AXnÃ. C\n kzÀW¯n Hcp ]q XoÀ¯mtem? AXn\v kpKÔhp apണ്ടmhnÃ. Cl¯nse GXp kpµc kzcq]¯nsâbpw s]mXpkz`mhamWnXv. AIwtamSnbpw ]pdwtamSnbpw Hcn¡epw CW§p¶nÃ. AIhpw ]pdhpw Hcp t]mse aqeyh¯pw kpµchpamb hÃXpw ChnsS ImWm\ptണ്ടm? Fs´¦nepw A]qÀWXIÄ tNcm¯ k¼qÀW kuµcyw? CÃ. 

F¶m AÃmlphnsâ hN\amb JpÀB³ Nm]ey§fnÃm¯ kuµcyamWv. AIhpw ]pdhpw ip²w, kpµcw, Kw`ocw, A\izcw. AI¯pw ]pd¯pw kuµcyhpw aqeyhpw ]mh\XzhpapÅ alm]pjv]w t]mse, JpÀB³ BkzmZIs\ Hcn¡epw \ncmis¸Sp¯p¶nÃ. F¶psa¶pw A\p`hn¡m³, kwXr]vXn ]Icm³ Iണ്ടàhpw {]uVhpamWXv. IndpIrXyamb JWvVnX kXy§Ä, X{´{][m\amb {]tbmK§Ä, hm¡pIÄ, hmIy§Ä! ASnapSn AXymIÀjIhpw {]iwk\obhpamb ssieo hntijw. Cu aq¶v KpW§fpw kp{][m\amWv. ImcWw ]dbmw. AkXy¯n\v hnip²nbnÃ. \ne\nÂ]panÃ. ]cnKW\tbm {i²tbm AÀln¡p¶panÃ. AkXy¯nsâ IeÀ]pÅ kXyhpw CtX KW¯nemWv. AXpsImണ്ടv am\h amÀKZÀi\¯n\pÅ GsXmcp ktµihpw kXyambm am{Xw t]mcm. k¼qÀW kwip² kXyambncn¡Ww. IndpIrXyamb kXyw. JWvVnX bmYmÀYyw. kXyw Xs¶ AhXcn¸n¡pt¼mgpw ]qÀWPm{KX thWw. Aekamtbm A{i²amtbm AhXcn¸n¡s¸Sp¶ kXyhpw If¦s¸Sm\pw A]ISw hcp¯m\panSbpണ്ടv. AhXmcI\v ]qÀW{i²bpw \nXm´ Pm{KXbpw A\nhmcyamWv. X{´{][m\amb ssienbpw {]tbmK§fpambncn¡Ww. kuµcyt_m[anÃmsX ]cp¡³ a«n ]dsªm¸n¡pt¼mÄ kXy¯nsâ {]m[m\yhpw BIÀjIXzhpw \jvSs¸SpItbm £Xs¸SpItbm sNbvtX¡pw. ]qÀWambpw A_²apàamb kXyt_m[\§Ä X{´{][m\amb {]tbmK§fneqsS AXohkpµcamb ssienbn AhXcn¸n¡p¶ \nehnepÅ GIthZamWv hnip² JpÀB³.
""ap¼neqsStbm ]n¼neqsStbm A_²w AXns\ _m[n¡nÃ. X{´Úsâ, kvXp XyÀlsâ ]¡Â \n¶mWXnsâ AhXcWw'' (hn.Jp: 41/42).
""kXyhpambn \maXv AhXcn¸n¨ncn¡p¶p. kXyhpambn AhXcn¡pIbpw sNbv Xncn¡p¶p'' (hn.Jp: 17/105).
kmÀh{XnIambn AwKoIcn¡s¸«ncp¶ imkv{X \nKa\§Ä, \nba \nÀtZi§Ä, `cWLS\IÄ FÃmw Xncp¯s¸«n«pണ്ടv. hnip² JpÀB\n Hcp Xncp¯p t]mepw Bhiyambn h¶n«nÃ. Xncp¯v BhiyamsW¶v hnNmcn¨ncp¶hÀ kzbw Xncp¯pIbpapണ്ടmbn«pണ്ടv. hnip² JpÀB\nsâ Bibw, `mj, ssien XpS§n FÃmw H¶ns\m¶v sa¨s¸« kuµcy\ndhmWv. kuµcy¯nsâ Gähpw anI¨ cq]¯nÂ. JpÀB\v hg§p¶hÀ Bßobhpw, kmwkvImcnIhpamb anI¨ hy ànXzw BÀPn¡p¶p. e£yhpw amÀKhpw ^ehpw ]qÀWambn kpµcambncn¡m³ XmÂ]cyapÅhÀ¡v JpÀB³ Hgn¨pIqSm\mhm¯ amÀKZÀi\amWv.

""kpµc IÀa§Ä FSp¡p¶hÀ¡v kuµcy]qÀWamb {]Xn^eapണ്ടv. AXn IqSpXepapണ്ടv'' (hn.Jp: 10/26). ""AÃmlphnsâ \nd¨mÀ¯v! AÃmlphns\¡mÄ kpµcambn hÀW\IÄ \S¯p¶hÀ Bcpണ്ടv?'' (hn.Jp: 2/138).
JpÀB\n \n¶Iept¼mÄ hyànXz, kmwkvImcnI sshcq]yhpw XIÀ¨bpw kw`hn¡p¶p. ""Fsâ DZvt_m[\w Bcv AhKWn¡p¶pthm, AhÀ¡v t¢i PohnXapണ്ടv'' (hn.Jp: 20/124).
""Xsâ \mYsâ hN\§Ä aptJ\ D]tZin¡s¸«Xn ]ns¶ AXn \n¶I¶p Ignbp¶ht\¡mÄ AXn{Ian Bcpണ്ടv. \nÝbw, \mw ZpÀ\S¸pImsc ]nSnIqSp¶pണ്ടv'' (hn.Jp: 32/22).
JpÀB\pambn kacks¸Sm¯ PohnXw F{Xta Ahnip²hpw A]ISIchpamsW¶v \_n(kz) hyàam¡p¶p.
hnip² JpÀB³ hninjvS kuµcy§fpsS BZÀiamWv. kpµchnizmkw, kpµc IÀaw, kpµckz`mhw, AXmWv JpÀB³ IÂ]n¡p¶Xv. kpµc{]Xn^ew, AXoh kpµckzÀKw AXmWv JpÀB³ hmKvZm\w sN¿p¶Xv. JpÀB³ DbÀ¯n¸nSn¡p¶ kpµc ktµi§fpsS GXm\pw DZmlcW§Ä ImWpI. hnizmk kuµcyw
""F¶m AÃmlp \n§Ä¡v kXyhnizmks¯ {]nb¦cam¡nbncn¡p¶p. \n§fpsS a\kpIfn Ahsb kuµcys¸Sp¯pIbpw sNbvXncn¡p¶p'' (hn.Jp: 49/7). IÀa kuµcyw
Cl¯n kpµcIÀa§Ä A\pjvTn¡p¶hÀ¡v \·bpണ്ടv (hn.Jp: 39/10). ""hnizkn¨p kpIrX§sfSp¯hÀ, AhÀ¡v kt´mjapണ്ടv. kpµckt¦Xhpapണ്ടv'' (hn.Jp: 13/29). JpÀB\nI ImgvN¸mSn PohnXw Xs¶ Hcp kpµc ]co£WamWv.
""kÀhm[nImcw ssI¿mfp¶h³ ]cnip²³. Ah³ kÀhià³. Ah³ PohnXhpw acWhpw kPoIcn¨ncn¡p¶p. BcmWv kpµcIÀa§sfSp¡p¶sX¶p ]co£n¡p¶Xn\v thണ്ടn. Ah³ AP¿³. Gsd s]mdp¡p¶h³'' (hn.Jp: 67/1,2). Ckvemansâ, JpÀB\nsâ kuµcyw Bßmhnte¡v, hyànXz¯nte¡v ]IÀ¯pI. AXmWv Gähpw ]mh\amb kuµcyw. AXpÄsImÅpI, AXn A`nam\n¡pI, AXn\mbn \nesImÅpI. ""AÃmlphnte¡v £Wn¡pIbpw kpIrX§Ä FSp¡pIbpw Rm³ apkvenamsW¶v {]Jym]n¡pIbpw sNbvXht\¡mÄ kpµchm¡p ]dbp¶h\mcpണ്ടv?'' (hn.Jp: 41/33).
bYmÀY kuµcys¯ ad¨p ]nSn¡p¶, \in¸n¡p¶ hymP kuµcy§fpapണ്ടv. Ahbn BIrãcmbn I_fn¸n¡s¸«pIqSm. CltemIs¯ hymP, \izckuµcy§fpsS elcnbn a¯p ]nSn¨p ab§p¶ `mKytZmjnIsf JpÀB³ X«nbpWÀ¯p¶p; kaNn¯XtbmsS DWÀ¶p Nn´n¡m³. bYmÀY kuµcy¯n\v hnLmXamIp¶ ss]imNnI kuµcys¯ adnIS¡m\pw JpÀB³ DZvt_m[n¸n¡p¶p.
""kv{XoIÄ, k´m\§Ä, kzÀ® shÅn tiJc§Ä, hntijmiz§Ä, arK§Ä, Irjn XpS§nbhsb¡pdn¨v Zpcm{Kl§Ä a\pjyÀ¡v kpµcambn ImWn¡s¸ «ncn¡p¶p. AhsbÃmw sFlnI hn`h§Ä am{XamWv. AÃmlphn¦Â AXn kpµckt¦Xapണ്ടv'' (hn.Jp: 3/14).

kky§fpw ktkymÂ]¶§fpw hnip² JpÀBsâbpw \_nhN\§fpsSbpw {]Xn]mZy hnjb§fnsem¶mWv. JpÀB\n ]cmaÀin¡s¸« kky§sf kw_Ôn¨v ]camh[n hnhc§Ä tiJcn¡p¶Xn\v ]WVnX·mÀ {]bXv\n¡pIbpണ്ടmbn. C§s\ tiJcn¨ hnhc§Ä JpÀB³ hymJym\§fn emWv BZyL«§fn AhÀ DÄs¡mÅn¨Xv. \_nhN\§fn ]cmaÀin¡s¸« sNSnIsf¡pdn¨pw C¯cw At\zjW§fpണ്ടmbn.
Cu´¸\, Heohv, ap´ncn, a¶, Ddpam³, A¯n, ImämSn, tZhZmcp, C©n, DÅn, ]bÀ, I¡ncn, Xpfkn, ISpIv, IÅnapÄs¨Sn F¶nh JpÀB³ ]cmaÀin¨ sNSnIfn s]Sp¶p. Irjnsbbpw ImÀjnI hnfIsfbpw kw_Ôn¨pw JpÀB\n [mcmfw ]cmaÀi§fpണ്ടv. `qanbn sNSnIÄ apf¨phfcp¶Xpw ImbvI\nIfpണ്ടmIp¶Xpw HSphn DW§nt¸mhp¶Xpw Nn´n¡p¶hsc kw_Ôn¨nSt¯mfw [mcmfw ]mT§Ä DÄs¡mÅp¶ ssZhnI ZrjvSm´§fmsW¶v JpÀB³ ]dbp¶p.
""Ah\mWv \n§Ä¡pthണ്ടn BImi¯p\n¶v ag hÀjn¸n¡p¶Xv. AXnÂ\n¶p \n§Ä IpSn¡p¶p. AXpaqew sNSnIÄ Dണ്ടmhp¶p. AXn\m \n§Ä¡p I¶pImenIsf ta¡m³ km[n¡p¶p. Irjn, Heohpacw, Cu¯¸\, ap´ncn F¶nhbpw asäÃmXcw ]g§fpw ag aqew Ah³ \n§Ä¡v DXv]mZn¸n¨p Xcp¶p. XoÀ¨bmbpw Nn´n¡p¶hÀ¡v AXn ZrjvSm´apണ്ടv'' (16 : 10, 11).

sNSnIfpsS sshhn[yhpw hfÀ¨bpsS L«§fpsaÃmw hnhn[ kqà§fnembn JpÀB³ {]Xn]mZn¡p¶pണ്ടv. ""BImi¯p\n¶p ag hÀjn¸n¨Xpw Ah\mIp¶p. ag ImcWambn FÃm hkvXp¡fpsSbpw apfIsf Ah³ ]pd¯psImണ്ടphcp¶p. A§s\ \mw AXn \n¶v ]¨¸v DXv]mZn¸n¨p. ]n¶oSv Ahbn \n¶v Xn§n\n¡p¶ [m\y§sf ]pd¯psImണ്ട­ph¶p. Cu¯¸\bpsS sImXp¼Nâ \n¶v Xq§n\n¡p¶ IpeIÄ Dണ്ടmIp¶p'' (6 : 99).

kky§fnse CWIÄ F¶ {]Xn`mk¯nte¡v JpÀB³ C§s\ hnc Nqണ്ടp¶p: ""\n§Ä¡pthണ്ടn hyXykvX P\pÊnÂs]« kkyCWIsf \mw DÂ]mZn¸n¨ncn¡p¶p'' (20 : 53). ""FÃm ]g§fn \n¶pw CWIfmbn Hmtcm tPmUnsb Ah³ Dണ്ടm¡n'' (13 : 3).
sNSnIfnse B¬ þ s]¬ km¶n[ys¯bmWv Cu hN\§Ä kqNn¸n¡p¶Xv. sNSnIfnse ]pcptj{µnbamb tIkc¯n \n¶pÅ ]qs¼mSn (]pw_oPw) kv{Xo C{µnbamb AWvUI¯n ]Xn¡pt¼mgmWv ]cmKWw (kky§fpsS ssewKnI _Ôw) \S¡p¶Xv. ""]cmKWw \S¯p¶ ImäpIsf \mw Ab¨p'' (15 : 22). F¶ JpÀB³ hmIys¯ CtXmSp tNÀ¯p hmbn¡Ww. Npcp¡¯n JpÀB³ ]T\¯nsâ `mKambn¯s¶ kkyimkv{X]T\w apkvenw ss[jWnI PohnX¯nsâ `mKambn¯oÀ¶p.

\nch[n hr£§sfbpw Huj[s¨SnIsfbpw kw_Ôn¨p \_nhN\§fn ]cmaÀiapണ്ടv. kky§sf kw_Ôn¡p¶ an¡ \_nhN\§fpw AhbpsS Huj[ KpW¯n Du¶p¶hbmWv. Deph, Icn©ocIw, Iäphmg, Z´[mh\sNSn, kp¶mam¡n, \oebacn, Nns¡dn, B«§, ISpIv, NXIp¸, BhW¡v XpS§nb kky§sf ]e tcmK§Ä¡pw Huj[ambn \_n in]mÀi sN¿pIbpണ്ടmbn. Imc¡, Ddpam³, Heohv, ap´ncn, A¯n, k^ÀPÂ, Nm¼¡, h¯¡, I¡ncn, Npcbv¡, hgpX\§, _oäv dq«v, C©n, DÅn, shfp¯pÅn, _mÀen, tKmX¼v, Acn, tNmfw, ssaem©n, hb¼v, Ip¦paw, IkvXqcn, Xpfkn F¶nhbpw \_n hN\§fn ]cmaÀin¡s¸«n«pണ്ടv.

ac§fpw sNSnIfpw h¨p]nSn¸nt¡ണ്ടXnsâbpw Ahsb kwc£nt¡ണ്ടXnsâbpw BhiyIXbpw {]hmNI³ Du¶n¸dbp¶p v. sNSnIfpsS Huj[ {]m[m\yw {]hmNI³ FSp¯p ]dªXv B hgn¡pÅ At\zjW¯n\p apkvenwIÄ¡v t{]cWbpambn.
""acWsamgnsIbpÅ FÃm tcmK§Ä¡pw Huj[amWv Icn©ocIw'', ""Fsâ P\X¡v DephbpsS aqeyw Adnbpambncps¶¦n AhÀ XpeyXq¡w kzÀWw sImSp¯v AXv hm§pambncp¶p.'' ""Ddpam³ ]gw Zl\s¯ iàns¸Sp¯pw.''

C§s\ kky§fpsS Huj[KpW§sf¡pdn¡p¶ \m\qtdmfw lZokpIÄ \nthZ\w sN¿s¸«n«pണ്ടv. kky§fpsS {]m[m\yw DÄs¡mÅp¶Xn\pw Ahsb Ipdn¨p IqSpX ]Tn¨dnbp¶Xn\pw \_nbpsS C¯cw hN\§Ä apkvenwIÄ¡v {]tNmZ\ambn¯oÀ¶p.
hr£§sf BZcn¡m\pw Ah Ignbp¶{X h¨p]nSn¸n¡m\pw {]hmNI\pw in jycpw P\§sf DZvt_m[n¸n¨ncp¶p. hr£¨phSpIsf aeaq{X hnkÀP\¯neqsS aen\am¡cpsX¶pw \_n IÀi\ambn Xm¡oXp sNbvXp.